APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY

A PRESENTATION ON THE TOPIC

OF

Introduction
Solar energy is an non-degrading energy. It is very useful to our human being for this glowing time. being It is useful to revoulutioning and develop our human

Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy that is derived from any source that can be naturally replenished. When energy is produced using traditional methods, natural resources such as coal and wood are used. Types of renewable energy sources include water power, solar power, wind power, and biofuels. The world needs renewable energy because most of the energy produced now is produced using fossil fuels that do not have an unlimited supply. Eventually, these fossil fuels will no longer be available, and we will need to other sources of energy.

How does solar energy work?
Solar energy is simply the light and heat given off by the sun. Only about half of the actual energy produced by the sun makes it to earth; the other half is reflected back into space by our atmosphere. The solar energy that makes it through the clouds to us is easy to see and feel.

Solar energy storage
Batteries for storage Natural zeolites for solar energy storage Sensible heat storage Latent heat storage Chemical reaction energy storage

APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY
Solar energy is a heat energy it have a useful applications in various areas City Residential homes • Industrial Applications • Water Pumping, lighting, heating in the Developing World Central Power Stations • Commercial buildings • Other Recreational Applications

City Residential homes
Recent years have seen rapid growth in the number of installations of PV on to buildings that are connected to the electricity grid. This area of demand has been stimulated in part by government subsidy programmes (especially Japan and Germany) and by green pricing policies of utilities or electricity service providers (e.g. in Switzerland and the USA). The central driving force though comes from the desire of individuals or companies to obtain their electricity from a clean, non-polluting, renewable source for which they are prepared to pay a small premium. Solar PV modules can be retrofitted on to a pitched roof above the existing roof-tiles, or the tiles replaced by specially designed PV roof-tiles or roof-tiling systems.

A parabolic dish and Stirling engins system, which concentrates sunlight to produce useful solar power. About  the half incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's surface.   Average insolation showing land area (small black dots) required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar electricity. 18 TW is 568 Exajoule (EJ) per year. Insolation for most people is from 150 to 300 W/m² or 3.5 to 7.0 kWh/m²/day.

Greenhouses like these in the Westland municipality of the Netherlands grow vegetables, fruits and flowers. Agriculture seeks to optimize the capture of solar energy in order to optimize the productivity of plants. Techniques such as timed planting cycles, tailored row orientation, staggered heights between rows and the mixing of plant varieties can improve crop yields.

Industrial Applications
For many years, Solar Energy has been the power supply of choice for Industrial applications, where power is required at remote locations. This means in these applications that solar power is economic, without subsidy. Most systems in individual uses require a few kilowatts of power. The examples are powering repeater stations for microwave, TV and radio, telemetry and radio telephones. Solar energy is also frequently used on transportation signalling e.g. offshore navigation buoys, lighthouses, aircraft warning lights on pylons or structures, and increasingly in road traffic warning signals.

Solar is used to power environmental and situation monitoring equipment and corrosion protection systems (based on impressing a current) for pipelines, well-heads, and bridges or other structures. As before, for larger electrical loads it can be cost effective to configure a hybrid power system that links the PV with a small diesel generator. Solar's great benefit here is that it is highly reliable and requires little maintenance so it's ideal in places that are hard to get to.

•Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany won the 2007 Solar Decathlon in Washington, D.C. with this passive house designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate. • • •Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history. Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese, who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth. •

Water Pumping , lighting , heating in the Developing World
Apart from off-grid homes, other remote buildings such as schools, community halls, and clinics can all benefit from electrification with Solar Energy. This can power TV, video, telephony and a range of refrigeration equipment, which is available to meet World Health Organization standards for vaccine refrigeration, for instance . PV Systems can be used to pump water in remote areas e.g. as part of a portable water supply system. To meet the largest power requirements in an off-grid location, the PV system is sometimes best configured with a small diesel generator. This means that the PV system no longer has to be sized to cope with the worst sunlight conditions available during the year. The diesel generator can then provide the back-up power, but its use is minimized during the rest of the year by the PV system, so fuel and maintenance costs are kept low. Solar energy can also power area lighting to enable more outdoor activities after dark or improve security, and to illuminate signs or advertising boards.

Central Power Stations
Central Power applications use solar energy in the same configuration that a Utility would utilize a major power station. This is distinctly different from the other applications on this page, which are known as "distributed power" or power distributed in small aggregate amounts of power, usually close to the point of use of the electricity. Central solar power generation plants have been installed in Italy, US and Spain, for example. However, all these plants are "pilot" in nature. Central solar plants may be attractive under certain conditions, but they do not capitalize on the competitive strengths of solar PV in terms of its flexibility of location (i.e. being located close to the customer) and its ability to be installed incrementally

Solar water heaters facing the Sun to maximize gain. Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems. The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools. As of 2007, the total installed capacity of solar hot water systems is approximately 154 GW. China is the world leader in their deployment with 70 GW installed as of 2006 and a long term goal of 210 GW by 2020. 

Small scale solar powered sewerage treatment plant. Solar distillation can be used to make saline or brackish water potable. The first recorded instance of this was by 16th century Arab alchemists. A largescale solar distillation project was first constructed in 1872 in the Chilean mining town of Las Salinas. The plant, which had solar collection area of 4,700 m², could produce up to 22,700 L per day and operated for 40 years. Individual still designs include single-slope, double-slope (or greenhouse type), vertical, conical, inverted absorber, multi-wick, and multiple effect. These stills can operate in passive, active, or hybrid modes. Double-slope stills are the most economical for decentralized domestic purposes, while active multiple effect units are more suitable for large-scale applications

Other Recreational Applications
Solar Power is frequently used in consumer product applications which require small amounts of energy (like calculators). Another frequent use is for Recreation Vehicles (RVs) and Boating to recharge the battery for recreational use activities.

Daylighting features such as this oculus at the top of the Pantheon, in Rome, Italy have been in use since antiquity. The history of lighting is dominated by the use of natural light. The Romans recognized a right to light as early as the 6th century and English law echoed these judgments with the Prescription Act of 1832. In the 20th century artificial lighting became the main source of interior illumination but daylighting techniques and hybrid solar lighting solutions are ways to reduce energy consumption.

Solar Two's thermal storage system generated electricity during cloudy weather and at night. Solar energy is not available at night, and energy storage is an important issue because modern energy systems usually assume continuous availability of energy. Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or seasonal durations

Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km (1,877 mi) course from Darwin to Adelaide. Development of a solar powered car has been an engineering goal since the 1980s. The World Solar Challenge is a biannual solar-powered car race, where teams from universities and enterprises compete over 3,021 kilometres (1,877 mi) across central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. In 1987, when it was founded, the winner's average speed was 67 kilometres per hour (42 mph) and by 2007 the winner's average speed had improved to 90.87 kilometres per hour (56.46 mph).

Helios UAV in solar powered flight. In 1974, the unmanned AstroFlight Sunrise plane made the first solar flight. On 29 April 1979, the Solar Riser made the first flight in a solar powered, fully controlled, man carrying flying machine, reaching an altitude of 40 feet (12 m). In 1980, the Gossamer Penguin made the first piloted flights powered solely by photovoltaics. This was quickly followed by the Solar Challenger which crossed the English Channel in July 1981. In 1990 Eric Raymond in 21 hops flew from California to North Carolina using solar power

Conclusion:
For many years, Solar Energy has been the power supply of choice for Industrial applications, where power is required at remote locations. This means in these applications that solar power is economic, without subsidy. Most systems in individual uses require a few kilowatts of power. In this time ,our natural resources are in an destroying stage. but by means of alternative energy sourcing , it is help for our human being.

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