You are on page 1of 29

More than 500 microbial species

About 1 1,5 kg of our body weight


100,000,000,000,000 individual cells
The GI tract is sterile in normal fetus
Bacterial colonization
Bifidobacteria
Defense mechanism

Bifidobacterium

Lactobacillus

Friendly bacteria

Escherichia

Glostridium

Staphylococcus

Pathogenic bacteria

Bacteriodes
Opportunistic bacteria

Veillonella

Gut peristaltic
Gastric acid
Gut secretion ( bile, pancreatic juices, immonuglobulins )
Intestinal mucous
Mucosal blood flow
Enterocyte regeneration

~25 40 % of the gut is


lymphoid tissue
Up to 70% of all the immune
cells are located in the
instestine

Dietary components
Digestion products
Intimate contact with immune system of gut
( Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue )
food + microorgansims = necessary for development of
GALT

Ruthlein. 1992

Treatment of acute diarrhea


Prevention of acute diarrhea
Prevention of nosocomial diarrhea
Treatment of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea (AAD)
Prevention of AAD

Randomized Clinical Trials


Children with acute diarrhea
Yogurt vs placebo
Decrease duration of diarrhea

Isolauri et al ( 1994), Reza et al ( 1995 ), Pant et al ( 1995 )

RCT of Probiotic for treatment of


acute diarrhea
PROBIOTIC

AUTHORS

DAY

TREATMENT
GROUP

CONTROL
GROUP

L rhamnosus

Isolauri, 1991
Raza, 1995
Pant, 1996
Shomikova, 1997
Guandalini, 2000

71
40
26
123
287

5
2
2
5
5

1.4 days
31% ( at day 2 )
1.9 days
2.7 days
2.4 days

2.4 days
75% ( at day 2 )
3.3 days
3.7 days
3.0 days

L reuteri

Shomikova, 1997
Shomikova, 1997

66
40

5
5

1.5 days
26% ( at day 2 )

2.5 days
81% ( at day 2 )

S boulardii

Cetina Sauri, 1989

130

15% ( at day 2 )

60% ( at day 2 )

55 infants aged 5 24 months hospitalized for


non- GI disease.
Formula : Bifidobacteria vs control
Observe for 7 months
Diarrhea episode decreased ( 7 % vs 31 % )
Rotavirus enfection decreased ( 10 % vs 39 % )
Saavedra et al, 1994

ND is major problem in pediatric hospital worldwide


81 children aged 1 36 months hospitalized for reason
other than diarrhea.
RCT : LGG ( n = 45 ) vs placebo ( n = 36 )
LGG 6 x 109 cfu twice daily
LGG reduced the risk of nosocomial diarrhea in
comparison with placebo ( 6,7% vs 33,3 % )
LGG significantly reduced the risk of rotavirus
gastroenteritis ( 2,2% vs 17,7 % )

Antibiotic associated diarrhea


Metronidazole / vancomicyn
Relapse
Treatment with Lactobaillus casei
Bacteria-produced substance inhibit in vitro the
growth of enteropatogens, including C.difficille
Prevent relapse of C difficille diarrhea

RCT of probiotic for prevention of


antibiotic-associated diarrhea
PROBIOTIC

AUTHORS

DAY

TREATMENT
GROUP
% DIARRHEA

CONTROL
GROUP
% DIARRHEA

S boulardii

Adam, 1977
Surawicz, 1989
McFarland, 1995

388
180
193

7
28
28

4.5
9.9
7.2

17.5
21.8
14.6

L rhamnosus

Vanderhoof, 1999
Arvoie, 1999

188
167

10
30

8
5

26
16

B longum

Orrhage, 1994

20

21

20

70

E faecium

Wunderlich, 1989

45

8.7

27.2

Helicobacter pylori
Lactose intolerance
Ulcerative colitis
Necrotizing Enterocolitis

In vitro and in vivo data support the use of


probiotics in Hp infections
Adding probiotic to the standard tretment of Hp
infections ( PPI and 2 antibiotics ) reduced side
effects and improve compliances.
Need more trials to replace current treatment
on Hp infections

Children with lactose malabsorption ( BHT )


Milk, yogurt, pasteurized yogurt
Administration of yogurt decrease H2 production
and decrease symptom of lactose intolerance

Sherber et al, 1995 ; Montes et al, 1995

Pre and post test design, Jakarta


42/66 Junior High School students ( 12 -14 years old ) are
lactose intolerance using BHT
Full-cream milk for 1 week : all symptoms appeared :
borborigmy, flatus, adbominal distention, nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
After 2 weeks of treatment with probiotic, 40 children free
of symptoms
Only 2 children still having abdominal distension and flatus
Boediarso et al, 2005

RCT in 18 patients of active UC


Bifidobacterium longum + FOS (1 month)
Clinical status, laboratory and biopsy
Sigmoidescopy score reduced ( p < 0,05 )
mRNA levels for human beta defensins 2,3 and 4
reduced ( p < 0,05 )
TNF, interleucin 1 reduced ( p < 0,05 )
Reduced inflammation in biopsy specimen
Furrie et al, 2005

Reduced NEC in an infant study in 585 VLBW


infants in 12 NICUs in Italy using Lactobacillus GG
with historical controls
( Hoyots et al, 1999 )
Infants given probiotic were less likely than control
infants to develop NEC; 1,4 % vs 2,8 %, not
statiscally significant
( Dani et al, 2002 )

A double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.


14 child care center, Israel.
Healthy infants aged 4 10 months, 12 weeks feeding and
observation.
201 infants : control 60, B lactis 73, L reuteri 68
Infants fed probiotic supplemented formula had fewer and
shorter episodes of diarrhea.
No effect on respiratory illnesses
The effect more prominent with L reuteri
Weizman et al, 2005

RCT over 7 month


To examine whether long term consumption or a probiotic milk could
reduce respiratory infections in children in daycare centers.
18 daycare centers in Helsinki, Finland.
571 healthy children aged 1- 6 years, 282 in intervention group and
289 in the control group.
Milk with our without Lactobacillus GG, 260 ml daily
Lactobacillus reduce respiratory infections and their severity among
children in daycare center.
Hatakka et al, 2001

Competitive inhibition of bacterial adhesion


Synthesis of compounds that inhibit or destroy
pathogens
Stimulation of immune response to pathogens
Competitive consumption of nutrient required for
growth of pathogens.

A recent review of 143 human clinical trials of


probiotics between 1961 and 1998 involving more
than 7500 subjects found no adverse events.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

Epidemiologic links between less exposure to microbes and allergic disease,


and protective effects of higher microbial burden.
Intestinal microbiotica are the largest source of microbial exposure through early
immune development
Intestinal microbiotica appear to be essential for development of oral tolerance
Changing patterns of microbiotica with progressive Westernization and links with
allergic disease.
Differences in perinatal colonization in children who go on to develop allergic
disease
Perinatal administration of probiotics associated with anti-inflammatory and
immunoregulatory effects on immune function.
Presymptomatic immune dysregulation evident in infants and newborns who
later develop allergic disease, suggesting that ellergy prevention should be
initiated early.
Initial studies with probiotics suggested promise in the prevention and early
treatment of allergis disease.

Mengaktivasi makrofag untuk meningkatkan


pemaparan antigen dengan limfosit B.
Meningkatkan produksi secretory IgA baik secara
lokal maupun sistemik
Memodulasi sitokin
Sumber : WGO, 2008.19

Mencerna makanan dan kompetitif nutrisi terhadap


patogen.
Mempengaruhi PH lokal untuk membuat kondisi yang
tidak menguntungkan untuk patogen.
Memproduksi bakteriosin untuk menghambat patogen.
Stimulasi produksi epithelial mucin.
Memperkuat fungsi barrier intestinal.
Kompetitif adhesi terhadap patogen.

Sumber : WGO.2008.19

Probiotics appear to be useful in the prevention or


treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders,
including infectious diarrhea, antibiotic associated
diarrhea, nosocomial diarrhea , and lactose
intolerance.
Safety does not appera to be a sginificant concern.
Research on probiotics in some diseases should
be done to get more clinical evidences