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Irrigation from

Internal and
External Sources

Precipitation
Rain
Canopy
Evaporation

Snow
Snow

Canopy Storage

Rain on
Snow Rain on
Bare
Ground

Thrufall
Abalation

WEBMOD

Snowpack
Snowmelt
Rain+Melt
Hortonian Overland Flow
Dunnian Overland Flow

Root zone ET

Root Zone Deficit


Soil Moisture
Deficit

Unsaturated Zone
Storage
Macropore flow

Diversion
Delivery
to Stream

Routing

Recharge
Crackflow and
fingering
Regional
Groundwater

Saturated Zone

Shallow well

Tile Drain
Baseflow and Exfiltration
Loss to Deep
Aquifer

Channel Loss

Basin Runoff

Watersheds:
What to expect
Rick Webb
Research Hydrologist

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

Chief Seattle, 1854


Man did not weave the web of
life: he is merely a strand of it.
Whatever he does to the web,
he does to himself.

Senator Gaylord Nelson, 1994


If we learn, finally, that what
we need to 'manage' is not the
land so much as ourselves in
the land, we will have turned
the history of American landuse on its head.

Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget


Inputs - Outputs = Change in storage
Inputs

Outputs

Incident radiation and ground heat flux


Precipitation with aerosols
Cloud interception
Regional ground water flow
Atmospheric aerosols and gases

Sensible and latent heat


Runoff
Regional ground water flow
Inorganic mass and solutes
Biomass and organic matter

Storage
Bedrock, Snowpack
Soil moisture, Surface water
Ground water, Biomass, Soils

Hypothesis: The residence times and biogeochemical processes active along the
various flow paths will determine the quality of surface and ground water in the
watershed.

Trout Lake, Wisconsin


Sleepers River, Vermont

Panola Mountain, Georgia

Loch Vale, Colorado

Luquillo, Puerto Rico

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES

SURFACE
RUNOFF
MECHANISMS

TOPMODEL
CONCEPTS
Sx

}
Saturation Deficit Sx

Sx = Savg + m [ lambda - ln(a/tanB)x ]


lambda = basin avg ln(a/tanB)

TOPMODEL
Distributed Process
Conceptualization
Statistical
Distribution of
Topographic Index

ln(a/tanB)

Water fluxes in TOPMODEL

Depth (z), in meters

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4

0.1

Ksat(z)
0.2
0.3

0.4

0.5

m values
(SZM)
5.00
2.50
1.70
1.00
0.50
0.25
0.17
0.10

Field Capacity

root
zone
Index
Saturation
Deficit
SD(+)

Wilting Point

Ave
ra

ge w

ate

r ta

bl e

La n
dS

urf

ace

root
zone

exfiltrated
water

Topographic
index
1

Increasing topographic index, ln(a/tan

Index
Saturation
Surplus
SD(-)
Average
Saturation
Deficit
SBAR

Rain+Melt

TOPMODEL

Hortonian Overland Flow


Dunnian Overland Flow

Root zone ET

Root Zone Deficit


Soil Moisture
Deficit

Unsaturated Zone
Storage
Macropore flow

Recharge
Saturated Zone

Baseflow and Exfiltration

Delivery
to Stream

Routing

Basin Runoff

Energy

Net Radiation Soil Heat Flux Storage = Sensible + Latent Heat

Snow Model Energy Balance

S
S

Net Radiation Transfers

Ground Heat Transfer

Latent Heat Transfer

Mass Change

Sensible Heat Transfer

Seasonal Melt Factor Variation


MFMAX

Melt Factor

Contiguous
United
States

Alaska
MFMIN

Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

Snow Cover Areal Depletion Curve


Mean Areal Water-Equivalent/Ai

1.0
0.8

Snow Cover
Depletion Curve

0.6
Amount
of
New
Snow

0.4
0.2
0.0

Effect of Snowfall
on Partially Bare Area
20

40

60

80

Areal Extent of Snow Cover (percent)

100

TOP_PRMS

Precipitation
Rain
Canopy
Evaporation

Snow
Snow

Canopy Storage

Rain on
Snow Rain on
Bare
Ground

Thrufall

PRMS: Interception and distribution


of temperature and precipitation

Snow
Evaporation

NWS SNOW-17

Snowpack
Snowmelt
Rain+Melt

TOPMODEL

Hortonian Overland Flow


Dunnian Overland Flow

Root zone ET

Root Zone Deficit


Soil Moisture
Deficit

Unsaturated Zone
Storage
Macropore flow

Recharge
Saturated Zone

Baseflow and Exfiltration

Delivery
to Stream

Routing

Basin Runoff

PRMS+NWS Snow-17 + TOPMODEL


= XTOP_PRMS

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Average monthly flux,


in centimeters

Evapotranspiration
Overland Flow
Macropore flow
Baseflow and exfiltration

Allequash
Icacos
Loch Vale
Panola
Sleepers

Biogeochemical cycles

Geochemical data compiled by Jake Peters, Jamie Shanely, and Brent Aulenbach

WEBMOD
Modifications to XTOP_PRMS to enable forward
feeding series of batch reactors:
Soil properties needed for solute transport
Porosity, field capacity, wilting point, rooting depth, depth to
bedrock, log-normal distribution of vertical hydraulic
conductivity.

Explicit flow paths


Irrigation, throughfall, transpiration, deep preferential flow

Track solute fluxes and storage

Couple with PHREEQC to enable geochemical


simulations

PHREEQC Capabilities
Aqueous, mineral, gas, surface, ion-exchange, and
solid-solution equilibria
Kinetic reactions
1D diffusion or advection and dispersion with
dual-porosity medium
A powerful inverse modeling capability allows
identification of reactions that account for the
chemical evolution in observed water
compositions
Extensive geochemical databases

Time series of water quality of inputs

Geochemical Setup
Initial and default solute
concentrations
Equilibrium phases
Kinetics
Reactants

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

Hydrologic Variables

Net precipitation
Snowmelt
Actual evapotranspiration
Overland flow from infiltration-excess
Saturated overland flow
Root zone moisture
Flux of water from the saturated zone to the root zone
Macropore flow
Baseflow and exfiltration

Solutes
Cations
H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+
Anions
HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3 and silica
H4SiO4
Base Cations
Base
Cations

Ca 2+

HCO 3-

Alkalinity
Alkalinity

Mg 2+

CO 3 2-

K+

SO 4 2-

Na +

Cl-

Acid
AcidAnions
Anions

NO 3-

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is


a linear dimensionality reduction
technique.
Read Reduce the number of variables
needed to explain the data

Component 1
(50 percent of variance):
10
8
6

Allequash

Andrews
Icacos

Panola
Sleepers

0
-2
-4
1

Month

10

11

12

Component 1 Wet/Dry
(+) Deluge/Melt
(-) Drought/Freeze
(50 percent of variance)
Accumulated solutes are flushed from the
watershed by snow melt or alternately retained
when precipitation and solutes are locked up when
the basin freezes.

Component 2
(+) Dry periods with cool, wet soils
(-) Wet periods with warm soils with
available root zone storage
(14 percent of variance)
Retention of ammonia, nitrate, and sulfate is less
during dry and cool periods with saturated soils
than it is during wet warm periods with available
root zone storage.

Component 3
(+) Dry soils during warm, dry periods
(-) Wet soils during cool, wet periods
(8 percent of variance)
This component describes the upward flux of water from
the saturated zone into drying riparian soils during periods
of high evapotranspiration. Exfiltration through
desiccating surfaces increases the net export of nitrate and
chloride; during wet and cool periods, the nitrate and
chloride in the precipitation may move from the base of
wet soils down to mix with ground water as might occur
during ground water ridging.

Component 4
(+) Low base flows with limited recharge
(-) Moderate baseflows with some recharge
(7 percent of variance)
During very low flows, ions from deep in the soil
profile are released; nutrients and sulfate are
tightly retained near the surface. During moderate
recharge events the nutrients and sulfate exports
are rinsed into a more saturated soil profile to be
released in the base flow as the contribution of
base cations diminishes.

Component 5
(+) Spring melts or rains on dry soils
(-) Late summer rains on wet soils
(4 percent of variance)
Ammonia is taken up by growing vegetation in the
spring. Mineralization of organic debris
reintroduces the ammonia into the system to be
released during late summer rains when
transpiration begins shutting down.

Dominant Component by Month and Year


Variance
Late summer rains on wet
soils, less NH4 retention
Recharge , decr. wx products,
Increased nutrients and SO4
Wet, cool periods. Less
export of Cl and NO3
Wet, warm, retention of
nutrients and sulfate.
Drought/Freeze. Everything Retained

Month

Allequash

-5

4%

-4

7%

-3

8%

-2

14%

-1

50%

Loch Vale

Melt on dry soils, NH4 retention

Luquillo

Base flows, increased wx products,


Decrease nutrients and SO4
Dry, warm periods, increased
export of Cl and NO3

Dry, cool, less retention


on nutrients and sulfate

Deluge/Melt. Everything exported.

Panola

Sleepers

Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep

Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
92 93 94 95 96 97 92 93 94 95 96 97

92 93 94 95 96 97

92 93 94 95 96 97

Water Years 1992-1997

92 93 94 95 96 97

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

Central Nebraska
Washington

Indiana

Potomac
Delaware

San JuaquinValley
California

Agricultural Watersheds
National Water Quality Assessment Program

Spatial Variability Aquifer Vulnerability

Recharge
vector

Lysimeter
nest

DR2 Watershed
Basin area = 5.2 km2
Average slope = 1%
Deep, silt loam soils
Clay content 11.5%
Preferential flow

Multiple land uses

DR2
Watershed

Flow, in centimers per


day

2.4

Precipitatio
n

Simulate
d
Discharg
e

Observed
Discharg
e

2002

2003

DR2
Watershed

Flow, in centimers per


day

2.4

Observed
Discharg
e

Precipitatio
n

Simulate
d
Discharg
e
2002

2003

DR2 Irrigation Components

DR2
Watershed

Flow, in centimers per


day

2.4

Irrigation

2002

2003

Bedrock
surface
elevation
(top of
Columbia
River
Group)
(in feet)

DR2
Watershed

2.4

Flow, in centimers per


day

Groundwater:
from north of Sunnyside canal
from irrigation north of canal

2002

2003

Irrigation from
Internal and
External Sources

Precipitation
Rain
Canopy
Evaporation

Snow
Snow

Canopy Storage

Rain on
Snow Rain on
Bare
Ground

Thrufall

WEBMOD

Snow
Evaporation

Snowpack
Snowmelt
Rain+Melt
Hortonian Overland Flow
Dunnian Overland Flow

Root zone ET

Root Zone Deficit


Soil Moisture
Deficit

Unsaturated Zone
Storage
Macropore flow

Diversion
Delivery
to Stream

Routing

Recharge
Crackflow and
fingering
Regional
Groundwater

Saturated Zone

Shallow well

Tile Drain
Baseflow and Exfiltration
Loss to Deep
Aquifer

Channel Loss

Basin Runoff

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

Rio Blanco Headwaters


Lower montane tropical
rain forest
Distinctions
Ultisols with preferential
flow paths (macropore
and along regolith)
Hortonian overflow
Mass wasting
Cloud interception offset
by Canopy evaporation
Tightly cycled nutrients

Rio Blanco Headwaters

Luquillo isotopes

Isotopic concentration, per mil

d2H

d18O

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40

2007

2008

in precipitation
In streams

Luquillo isotopes vs barometric pressure


d18O
d18O_Q

in precipitation
In streams

20

12

10

10

-10

-20

-30

-40

2007

2008

Barometric Pressure, in mm of Hg

Isotopic concentration, per mil

d2H
d2H_Q
mm Hg

Precip

Snow Pits

Stream

CosineFit

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25
1-Jan

20-Feb

10-Apr

30-May

19-Jul

7-Sep

27-Oct

16-Dec

Watersheds
Research Objective
WEBMOD
TOPMODEL
+ PRMS + NWS Snow = XTOP_PRMS
+ PHREEQC = WEBMOD
Principal Components of Water and Solutes
Application to managed watersheds
Isotopes
Climate impacts on Acid Rock Drainage

Red Mountain mining


district, Silverton, Colorado.

Change in 4-Year Moving Mean Daily Values of


Maximum Temperature for the 6 GCMs by Scenario
GCM Scenario:

SRESB1
convergent world
global population peaks in
mid-C
rapid changes in economic
structures toward a
service
and information economy

SRESA1B

very rapid economic growth


global population peaks in
mid-C
rapid intro of efficient
technologies (fossil and nonfossil)

SRESA2

very heterogeneous world


high population growth
slow economic development
slow technological change

Change in Maximum Temperature


from Current (1993-1997)
Mean
Meanofof66GCMs
GCMsby
by
Scenario
Scenario
Range
Rangeinin66GCMs
GCMsby
by
Scenario
Scenario

Scenario
B1

A1B
A2

Maximum
6-GCM Mean
Minimum
Maximum
6-GCM Mean
Minimum
Maximum
6-GCM Mean
Minimum

Pyrite
Void
K-clay

Verplanck, P.L., ed., 2008, Understanding contaminants


associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey
Circular 1328, 96 p.

Implications for Watershed Management


in Colorados Mineral Belt
Temperatures rising but changes in precipitation
highly uncertain.
High certainty of earlier melt and reduced flows in
late summer.
Overall, water tables may rise in response to more
days of melt, less ET by stressed vegetation in late
summer, and reduced overall ET with increased
concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Sulfate concentrations drop by 20 percent
coincident with increased export of 5 percent.

Implications for Watershed Science


WEBMOD will aid in understanding the seasonality
of water quantity and quality in watersheds with
diverse hydroclimatology, soils, and management
practices.
The simulations can provide estimates of antecedent
and forecasted watershed hydrology that can be
used to optimize water use and water quality.
WEBMOD is an excellent tool for both teaching
and testing conceptual and numerical models
requiring mass balance.

Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget Program


http://water.usgs.gov/webb/about.html

MoWS Modeling of Watershed Systems


http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/SW_MoWS/
NAWQA Topical Team: Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate
Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT)
http://in.water.usgs.gov/NAWQA_ACT/
PHREEQC - A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional
Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations
http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/index.html

TOPMODEL
http://www.es.lancs.ac.uk/hfdg/freeware/hfdg_freeware_top.htm

SNOW-17 model:
http://www.weather.gov/oh/hrl/nwsrfs/users_manual/part2/_pdf/22snow17.pdf

Questions?