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Punctuation marks

full stop or period.


hyphendash
slash, forward slash
or oblique
/
backslash\
apostrophe'
underline____
underscore_

Present Simple of the Verb to be:


am, is, are

Short Forms of the Verb to be

They are not working hard

Examples of to be: My motherisa teacher. This soupisvery


tasty. John and his wifeare from Manchester. The
flowersare on the table.
Isyour brother taller than you? AmIbotheringyou?
They are not working hard. Sheisnot angry.

Basic Business Terms


Accounting a system that provides quantitative information about
finances.
Assets the value of everything a company owns and uses to
conduct their business. Business an organization that operates with
the intention of making a profit. Contract a formal agreement to do
work for pay.
Entrepreneur someone who organizes, manages and takes on the
risk of starting a new business.
Expense money spent on supplies, equipment or other
investments.
Finance the management and allocation of money and other
assets.
Management the act of organizing and conducting a business to
accomplish goals and objectives.
Marketing the process of promoting, selling and distributing a
product or service. Net Income/Profit revenues minus expenses.
Net Worth the total value of a business.
Product something produced or manufactured to be sold; a good.
Supplier an organization that provides supplies to a business.

INDEFINITE ARTICLE: A / AN
A / AN
Use'a'with nouns starting with
aconsonant(letters that are not vowels),
'an'with nouns starting with
avowel(a,e,i,o,u)
Examples
Aboy
Anapple
Acar
Anorange
Ahouse
Anopera

The indefinite article is


used:
to refer to something for the first time:
An elephantanda mousefell in love.
Would you likea drink?
I've finally gota good job.
to refer to a particular member of a group
or class
with names of jobs:
John isa doctor.
Mary is training to bean engineer.
He wants to bea dancer.
with nationalities and religions, with
names of days, etc
But we do not use a/an with plural nouns

WH Question Words

We use question words to ask for information


When? Where? Who? Why?
How?
Time Place Person Reason Manner
What? : Object/Idea/Action
We usually formwh-questions withwh-+ an auxiliary
verb (be, door have) + subject + main verb or
withwh-+ a modal verb + subject + main verb:
Be: Whenareyou leaving?
Do: Wheredothey live?
Have: Whathasshe done now? Whathavethey
decided?
Modal: Whowouldshe stay with? WhereshouldI
park?

Introducing yourself and other


people
Introducing yourself:
My name is ...
I'm ....
Nice to meet you; I'm ...
Pleased to meet you; I'm ...
Let me introduce myself; I'm ...
I'd like to introduce myself; I'm ...
Introducing others:
Jack, please meet Nicolas.
Jack, have you met Nicolas?
I'd like you to meet Liza.
I'd like to introduce you to Betty.
Leila, this is Barbara. Barbara this is Leila.

Useful responses when introducing


yourself or other people:
Nice to meet you.
Pleased to meet you.
Happy to meet you.
How do you do?

Saying "Goodbye" in English


Formal goodbyes: Goodbye, Farewell,Have a good
day, Take care.
Casual goodbyes: Bye, See you later. / Talk to you
later, Have a good one, So long, All right then.

How to Write a Professional Email in


English
Begin with a greeting
It's important to always open your email
with a greeting, such as"Dear Lillian,".
Depending on the formality of your
relationship, you may want to use their
family name as opposed to their given
name, i.e."Dear Mrs. Price,". If the
relationship is more casual, you can simply
say,"Hi Kelly,"If youre contacting a
company, not an individual, you may
write"To Whom It May Concern:

Thank the recipient


If you are replying to a client's inquiry, you
should begin with a line of thanks. For example,
if someone has a question about your company,
you can say,"Thank you for contacting ABC
Company."If someone has replied to one of your
emails, be sure to say,"Thank you for your
prompt reply."or"Thanks for getting back to
me."If you can find any way to thank the
reader, then do. It will put him or her at ease,
and it will make you appear more courteous.

State your purpose


If, however, you are initiating the email
communication, it may be impossible to include a
line of thanks. Instead, begin by stating your
purpose. For example,"I am writing to enquire
about "or"I am writing in reference to "It's
important to make your purpose clear early on in
the email, and then move into the main text of
your email. Remember to pay careful attention to
grammar, spelling and punctuation, and to avoid
run-on sentences by keeping your sentences short
and clear.

Closing remarks
Before you end your email, it's polite to
thank your reader one more time as well as
add some courteous closing remarks. You
might start with"Thank you for your
patience and cooperation."or"Thank you
for your consideration."and then follow up
with,"If you have any questions or
concerns, don't hesitate to let me
know."and"I look forward to hearing from
you.

End with a closing


The last step is to include an appropriate
closing with your name."Best
regards,""Sincerely,"and"Thank you,"are
all professional. It's a good idea to avoid
closings such as"Best
wishes,"or"Cheers,"as these are best
used in casual, personal emails. Finally,
before you hit the send button, review and
spell check your email one more time to
make sure it's truly perfect!

BAD

EXAMPLE

Subject:

Revisions For Sales

Report
Hi Jackie,
Thanks for sending that report
last week. I read it yesterday,
and I feel that Chapter 2 needs
more specific information about
our sales figures. I also felt that
the tone could be more formal.
Also, I wanted to let you know
that I've scheduled a meeting
with the PR department for this
Friday regarding the new ad
campaign. It's at 11:00 a.m. and
will be in the small conference
room.
Please let me know if you can
make that time.
Thanks!
Monica

GOOD EXAMPLE

Subject: Revisions For Sales


Report
Hi Jackie,
Thanks for sending that report
last week. I read it yesterday,
and I feel that Chapter 2 needs
more specific information
about our sales figures.
I also felt that the tone could
be more formal.
Could you amend it with these
comments in mind?
Thanks for your hard work on
this!
Monica
(Monica then follows this up
with a separate email about
the PR department meeting.)

Prepositions (time
phrases)
atfor a PRECISE TIME
infor MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG
PERIODS
onfor DAYS and DATES
Look at these examples:
I have a meetingat9am.
The shop closesatmidnight.
Jane went homeatlunchtime.
In England, it often snowsinDecember.
Do you think we will go to Jupiterinthe future?
There should be a lot of progressinthe next century.
Do you workonMondays?
Her birthday ison20 November.
Where will you beonNew Year's Day?

Present simple tense

The Present Simple Tense for Habits and Routines

We use the present tense for an


activity, celebration, habit or
custom that is habitually
repeated, existed in the past and
will probably exist in the future,
relatively permanent.
We eat locally produced food.
The priest blesses the food.
We color eggs bright red.
This tradition bonds one
generation to the next.

Adverbs and expressions of


frequency

We often use the present simple with adverbs of


frequency:
never, hardly ever, usually, sometimes, often,
always
Adverbs of frequency gobeforethe main verb:
Iusuallywake up at 7am.
Adverbs of frequency goafter"be":
Hes alwayslate.
Expressions of frequency (every day, twice a week,
once a month etc) usually go at the end of a
sentence:
I have English lessonsevery day.

Answers
He goes out twice a week.
She usually wakes up early.
We visit my grandmother in Spain twice a year.
I often eat at the restaurant opposite my school.
Pedro is always the first student in class.
They hardly ever stay at home on a Saturday
night.
We go to the cinema once a week.
Jane and I see each other every Wednesday.
I sometimes walk to work.
We usually listen to the radio in the car.

Too / Enough

Tooandenoughindicate degree. They are used


with adjectives.
Toomeans more than what is needed.
Enoughmeans sufficient.
Examples
He istoo oldto play football with the kids.
Dave isintelligent enoughto do the right thing.
You're not workingfast enough
I don't haveenough time.
He hastoo many friends.
She has gottoo much patience

Simple Present: Negatives and


Questions
1. Forming a
negative
Negatives in the simple
present are formed by
addingdon'tordoesn't
before the simple form
of the verb:
In other words,
onlythird person
singularsubjects (he,
she and it)
havedoesn't the
rest havedon't.

2. Forming a
yes/no question
Yes/no questions
are also created
using the
auxiliarydo. This
time, the
auxiliary is
placed before the
subject. Here are
the rules:

Make questions and negative sentences:


1 They play tennis.
Question:
Negative:
2 Ramn likes pizza.
Question:
Negative:
3 My best friend works in a hotel.
Question:
Negative:
4 My parents get up early.
Question:
Negative:
5 We like your house.
Question:
Negative:

SOME & ANY

CAN/CANT

CAN/CANT

THERE IS /THERE ARE

https://www.youtube.
com/watch?
v=Mvpc6vZ1HXs