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ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

Electrical Terminologies
System Components
References:
Philippine Electrical Code
National Building Code
Graphics Standards

Electricity

phenomenon; manifestation
Principally made up of atoms (electron, proton, neutron)
2 General Classes: Dynamic and Static
ELECTRIC CURRENT flow in an electric circuit (amperes)
Classifications: Direct Current (DC)/Alternating Current (AC)
Amperes: Unit
Amperage: Current
Ampacity: Current-carrying capacity (w/o undue heating)

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT path for electric current w/ EMF applied


Electromotive Force (EMF) force which causes movement of
electricity in a conductor
Circuit Diagram electrical layout
Close Circuit complete; continuous path
Open Circuit broken, incomplete, disconnected
Two Types: Parallel/Series
Short Circuit: bridging
Shunt: circuit branching

ELECTRIC CURRENT CLASSIFICATION


1.

2.

DIRECT CURRENT
Flows in one direction (- to +)
Battery/dry cell
2 types of DC: continuous/pulsating (fluctuating)
ALTERNATING CURRENT
Reverses in direction
Frequency: 60 cps (60 Hertz)
Phase: SP/3P
240VAC, 60Hz, SP

COMPARISON: DC & AC
Direct Current

Alternating Current

DC
Fixed polarity

AC
Reverses polarity

Steady (Continuous); Vary in


magnitude (Fluctuating)

Varies between reversal

Steady value

Stepped up or down

Easier to measure: 1.5 volts

Easier to amplify: 110V+

OHMs LAW relationship of EMF, Current, Resistance


Formula: I = V/R
V=IR
R=V/I
I =
Current (Amperes)
V =
EMF (Volts)
R =
Resistance (Ohms)
Voltage (Volts) pressure or force; Voltmeter
Amperes (Amps) inherent in wires (conductor); Ammeter
Ohms friction; inherent in insulator/Ohmmeter

Other Electrical Terminologies


DEVICE does not consume electricity
WATT rate of power; power consumption; heat volts +
ampere
Watt Meter any one time
Watt-Hour Meter periodic; KWH Meter/Electricity Meter
ALTERNATOR AC generator
GENERATOR M.E to E.E.
MOTOR E.E. to M.E.
BATTERY electrochemical; electrolysis
Primary nonrenewable
Secondary - rechargeable

SYSTEM COMPONENTS OF BUILDING


3 CATEGORIES
1. Wirings and Raceways
o Conductors offers low resistance
o Insulators prevents flow of electric current
o Raceways - channel

2. Power Handling Equipment


o transformer, switchboard/switchgear, panelboard, service switch,
circuit breakers/fuse

3. Utilization Equipment actual use


o Fixtures
o Switches
o Convenience Outlets

WIRES AND CABLES


1. FMC/MC/AC BX; flexible
2. NMC/NM ROMEX; sheat
3. GENERAL WIRING: THERMOPLASTIC (PEC)
4. MI jacketed
5. SNM telecommunication/submarine cable
6. SE/USE aerial/underground
7. UF direct burial to ground
8. TC open wireway/support/tray
9. FC system furniture application/cable management
10. FCC general purpose
BUSBAR: Busway, Busduct
CABLEBUS; rounded

RACEWAYS
1.

2.

Floor Raceway
underfloor raceway conventional installation
cellular metal floor raceway rib decking/raised floor system
cellular concrete floor raceways T-joist/ precast concrete
slab with built in pipes
Ceiling Raceway
Power and Control Tray Cable (TC)
Busbar
Cablebus

POWER HANDLING EQUIPMENTS


1.

TRANSFORMER voltage to voltage


Outdoor Transformers
H-frame 1000 kva
Cluster mounted 225 kva
Pad mounted 120V to 240V
Indoor Transformers
Dry Type pad mounted; switchboard
Askarel synthetic non-flammable liquid
Oil-insulated for transformer vault
Transformer Rating: stepped up/stepped down

POWER HANDLING EQUIPMENTS

1.

2.

3.

SWITCHBOARD/SWITCHGEAR free standing assemblies


of switches, fuses/circuit breakers
Unit Substations (Transformer Load Center) large facility
PANELBOARD final distribution point; PP/LP
Main Panelboard
Distribution Panelboard
SERVICE SWITCH large switch
disconnecting apparatus
service disconnecting means
applied on apartments: meter banks

POWER HANDLING EQUIPMENTS

4.

CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES overload/short circuit


FUSE alloy link or wire; fusible link; nonrenewable
Plug Fuse dwelling (5-30 amps)
Cartridge Fuse (5-60 amps)
Knife Blade Fuse (61-600 amps); DE/SE

CIRCUIT BREAKERS electromechanical device


Thermal Pigtail (Copper) senses heat
Magnetic Pigtail (Copper) senses load

UTILIZATON EQUIPMENT
FIXTURES/LUMINAIRES
1. Incandescent Lamp/Bulb filament
2. Fluorescent Lamp/Tube cathode
CONDUITS/FITTINGS/CONDULETS
BRANCH CIRCUITS
ELECTRICAL BOXES
PLATES
Lighting Outlets
Receptacle/Convenience Outlets

FIXTURES/LUMINAIRES
INCANDESCENT BULB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Filament
Gas
Lead-in-wires
Stem Press
Exhaust Tube
Base
Fuse

8. Mica Disc
9. Button Rod
10. Button
11. Support Wires
12. Soft Glass
Hard Glass
Inside frosted white silica

FIXTURES/LUMINAIRES
FLUORESCENT LAMP
1.
2.
3.
4.

Cylindrical Glass Tube phosphor


Cathode argon and low pressure mercury vapor
Ballast limits current
Starter - switch

TYPES:
1. Pre-Heat Starting - CFL
2. Instant Start (Slimline) w/o a starter
3. Rapid Start bi-pins

CONDUITS

pipes, tubings (electrical raceway)


Materials (Metallic or Nonmetallic)
Make
1. Rigid Metal (RSC, EMT)
2. Flexible Metal (BX)
3. Rigid Nonmetal (Plastic, etc.)
4. Flexible Nonmetal (Plastic, etc.)

CONDULETS/UNILETS (Conduit Fittings)


1. Straight and angle couplings
2. Elbow Fittings
3. Tee and Cross connections

Condulets
F standard outlet box fittings

SE Service Entrance
L Elbow or Turn Fittings
C Through Fittings
T Through Fittings w/ 90 take off
E end of run to types of motors, transformers, equipments
LL/LR - 90 turns where mounting is not suitable for LB
LB when run of conduit comes must run thru wall/ceiling

ELECTRICAL BOXES

Outlet Box
Utility Box
Pull Box
Junction Box
Cut-out Box

cable ends
outlets, switches
facilitates pulling
joining, splicing
metal box

OUTLETS
Lighting Outlet Single Gang, Two Gang, Three gang (PLATE)
Convenience Outlet Receptacle Outlet
Duplex Convenience Outlet/Single Convenience Outlet
FM Flash mounted
SM Surface mounted