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ABB Power Technology

1_114Q07- 1 -

Station Bus
Protection

Protections

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1_114Q07- 2 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 3 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

Introduction
A bus is a critical element of a power system, as it is the point of
convergence of many circuits, transmission, generation, or loads.

The effect of a single bus fault is equivalent to many simultaneous


faults and usually, due to the concentration of supply circuits, involves
high-current magnitudes.

High-speed bus protection is often required to limit the damaging


effects on equipment and system stability or to maintain service to as
much load as possible.

The bus protection described refers to protection at the bus location,


independent of equipment at remote locations

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Ct saturation and its solutions on bus protection


Differential protection is the most sensitive and reliable method for
protecting a station bus.

The phasor summation of all the measured current entering and leaving the
bus must be 0 unless there is a fault within the protective zone.

For a fault not in the protective zone, the instantaneous direction of at least
one current is opposite to the others.

However, a current transformer saturation problem can result from the large
number of circuits involved and the different energization levels
encountered in these circuits for external faults.

For example, if there is an external fault on one circuit of a six-circuit bus,


five of the current transformers may supply varying amounts of fault current,
but the sixth and faulted circuit must balance out the total of all the others.

Consequently, this circuit is energized at a much higher level, near


saturation or with varying degrees of saturation, giving rise to possible high
false differential currents.

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1_114Q07- 5 -

Ct saturation and its solutions on bus protection


For the same reasons, dc saturation also is unequal.

Dc saturation is much more serious than ac saturation because a


relatively small amount of dc from an asymmetrical fault wave will
saturate the current transformer core and appreciably reduce the
secondary output.

The L/R ratio of the power-system impedance, which determines the


decay of the dc component of fault current, should strongly influence
the selection of the bus protective relaying.

Typically, the dc time constants for the different circuit elements can
vary from 0.01 sec for lines to 0.3 sec or more for generating plants.

The nearer a bus location is to a strong source of generation, the


greater the L/R ratio and the slower the decay of the resulting dc
component of fault current.

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1_114Q07- 6 -

Ct saturation and its solutions on bus protection

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 7 -

Of the several available methods for solving the unequal performance


of current transformers, four are in common use:

Eliminating the problem by eliminating iron in the current


transformer [a linear coupler (LC) system]

Using a multi-restraint, variable-percentage differential relay, which


is specifically designed to be insensitive to dc saturation

Using a high-impedance differential relay with a series resonant


circuit to limit sensitivity to ct saturation

Using a restraint differential relay with moderately high impedance


to limit sensitivity to ct saturation

Information required

When local bus protection is applied, the following information is


required for the scheme selection, relay selection, and setting
calculations:

Bus configuration information.

Maximum and minimum bus fault currents (single-phase-to-ground fault and


three-phase fault)

Current transformer information, including

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 8 -

Current transformer location

Current transformer ratios

Current transformer accuracy class

Current transformer saturation curves

Operating speed requirement

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1_114Q07- 9 -

Common bus configurations

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1_114Q07- 10 -

Common bus configurations

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1_114Q07- 11 -

Common bus configurations

Normal Practices on Bus Protection

There is one set of bus relays per bus section.

Use a dedicated ct for bus differential protection.

If possible, the connection of meters, auxiliary cts, and other relays in


differential-type bus schemes should be avoided since these devices
introduce an additional burden into the main circuit.

Lead resistance, as well as ct winding resistance, contributes to ct


saturation. Therefore, the length of secondary lead runs should be held
to a minimum.

Usually, the full-ct secondary winding tap should be used. This has two
advantages. It minimizes the burden effect of the cable and, second,
leads by minimizing the secondary current and makes use of the fullvoltage capability of the ct.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 12 -

Normal Practices on Bus Protection


Normally, there is no bus relay required for the transfer bus on a mainand-transfer bus arrangement, because the transfer bus is normally
deenergized and will be included in the main bus section when it is
energized.

No bus relay is required for a ring bus because the bus section
between each pair of circuit breakers is protected as a part of the
connected circuit.

Special arrangements should be considered if there is any other


apparatus, such as station service transformers, capacitor banks,
grounding transformers, or surge arresters, inside the bus differential
zone.

There is no simple scheme available for a double-bus-single-breaker


arrangement , because its current transformers are normally located on
the line side.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 13 -

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 14 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

The linear coupler differential system

The linear coupler scheme provides a highly reliable bus protection.

Of the four systems commonly in use,

it has a fast operating time;

is the easiest to apply, set, and maintain;

can readily accommodate switching or changes in the bus layout.

Since iron is eliminated, an air-core transformer, a linear coupler, is


required.

Adding a linear coupler can be a disadvantage, particularly in existing


installations where adequate current transformers exist.

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The linear coupler differential system

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 16 -

Linear couplers are air-core mutual reactors wound on nonmagnetic


toroidal cores.

Linear couplers are designed to fit into the same space as a conventional
current transformer.

Bushing or wound-type units are available for most of the voltage classes.

They are usually mounted in a circuit breaker or transformer bushing.

The single conductor through the center of the unit forms the primary of an
air-core reactor and provides a definite linear relationship between the
primary current and secondary voltage.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 17 -

The linear coupler differential system

The linear couplers have a negligible dc


response, so only the steady-state
conditions need be considered.

The linear coupler method of differential


protection is a voltage differential
scheme in which a series circuit is used.

All the linear coupler secondaries of a


particular phase are connected in series
with one relay to form a closed loop.

Under normal conditions or when


external faults occur, the induced
voltages in all the linear couplers add to
0.

On the internal faults, the net voltage will


operate the relay.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 18 -

The linear coupler differential system

The linear coupler bus protection system can easily accommodate


system changes and future expansion. In addition, it can be applied to
an unlimited number of circuits.

Since the linear couplers do not contain iron, there are no saturation
or transient problems.

The setting is calculated using only Ohm's law.

The operating time is between 32 ms and 16 ms.

Relays require minimum panel space.

The operating voltages are safe for personnel and well within the
insulation limits of all connected apparatus.

Since linear couplers may be open- or short-circuited with complete safety,


circuits can be switched among several bus sections much more easily
than conventional current transformers.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 19 -

The linear coupler differential system

In connecting linear couplers, the four wires from the star-connected


couplers should be transposed with respect to all other circuits and carried
in the same conduit or duct.

If a multiconductor cable is used, the other conductors should not be


employed unless there is no possibility of their inducing tripping voltages
into the linear coupler circuits.

Manual test auxiliaries are used to check the scheme during installation
and at regular test intervals.

To check for correct connections and a shorted coupler, three high-resistance


voltmeters are connected across the relays.

With load currents flowing, these voltages should be very low or 0.

Since the circuit might also be open at some point, a second test, which
requires opening the trip circuit, is also applied. A low series voltage of 0.6 or
1.2 V is introduced into the differential source. Approximately half this test
voltage will appear across the voltmeter; the remainder will appear across the
rest of the loop. An open circuit will cause the voltmeter to register 0 voltage or
full test voltage, depending on whether the coupler or relay circuit is open.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 20 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

Multirestraint differential system

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 21 -

Multirestraint differential schemes use


conventional current transformers, which
may saturate on heavy external faults.

For this reason, the secondary current


output may not represent the primary.

In a differential scheme, the current


transformers and relay function as a team.

When the current transformers do not


perform adequately, the relay can within
limits make up for the deficiency.

For this scheme, a more complex relay is


required than that described for the linear
coupler bus protection system.

More elaborate application rules are also


necessary, since there is a limit of current
transformer performance beyond which the
relay cannot compensate.

Multirestraint differential system

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 22 -

The multi-restraint differential scheme uses the variable-percentage


differential relay, which consists of three induction restraint units and
one induction-operating unit.

Two of the units are placed opposite each other and operate on a
common disc.

In turn, the two discs are connected to a common shaft with the
moving contacts.

All four of the units are unidirectional; that is, current flow in either
direction through the windings generates contact-opening torque
for the restraint units or contact-closing torque for the operating
unit.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 23 -

Multirestraint differential system

Each restraint unit (called R, S, and T) also has two windings to


provide restraint proportional to the sum or difference, depending
on the direction of the current flow.

If the currents in the two paired windings are equal and opposite,
the restraint is cancelled.

Thus, the paired restraint windings have a polarity with respect to


each other. With this method six restraint windings arc available.

Multirestraint differential system

ABB Power Technology


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In addition to providing multiple restraint, the variable-percentage


characteristic helps in overcoming current transformer errors.

At light fault currents, current transformer performance is good, and the


percentage is small for maximum sensitivity.

For heavy external faults, current transformer performance is likely to be


poor, and the percentage is large.

The variable-percentage characteristic is obtained by energizing the


operating unit through a built-in saturating autotransformer.

Multirestraint differential system

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The saturating autotransformer also presents a high impedance to the


false differential current, which tends to limit the current through the
operating coil and to force more equal saturation of the current
transformers.

On internal faults, in which a desirable high differential current exists,


saturation reduces the impedance.

A further advantage of the saturating autotransformer is that it provides a


very effective shunt for the dc component, appreciably reducing the dc
sensitivity of the operating units.

At the minimum pickup current of 0.15 5% A, the restraining coils are


ineffective.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 26 -

Multirestraint differential system

Figure on the left may be used if only three circuits are involved. The term
circuit refers to a source or feeder group.

When several circuits exist and the bus can be reduced to four circuits,
then the second scheme may be used.

For example, assume a bus consists of two sources and six feeders, and that
the feeders are lumped into two groups.

The bus now reduces to four circuits.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 27 -

Multirestraint differential system

In paralleling current transformers, each


feeder group must have less than 14-A load
current (restraint coil continuous rating).

If the bus reduces to more than four


circuits, then the scheme should be used.

Each primary circuit must be identified as


either a source or feeder.

Next, a number of feeders are lumped into a


feeder group by paralleling feeder current
transformers.

Each feeder group must have less than 14-A


load current and not contribute more than
10% of the total phase or ground fault
current for a bus fault.

Then connect the source and feeder


groups alternately as shown in Figure.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 28 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 29 -

Overcurrent Differential Protection

The differential scheme is obtained by paralleling all the current


transformers per phase with an induction disc overcurrent relay
across their output.

It is permissible to use auxiliary ct's to match ratios.

It is most desirable for all ct's to have the same ratio on the tap used
so that auxiliary ct's are not required.

Overcurrent Differential Protection

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Relays must be set above the maximum false differential current for
an external fault.

That is, very little saturation can be allowed if any degree of internal fault
sensitivity is to be obtained.

A certain amount of dc or ac saturation can be tolerated, because

(1) the operation of induction disc relays on the dc component is less efficient,
and

(2) the relay operation is not instantaneous.

To increase the response of these schemes, the dc time decrement


must be short.

This requirement virtually limits applications to substation buses remote


from large generating stations.

Although the relay cost is low, the engineering cost is usually high, since
considerable study or experience is required to assure correct operation.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 31 -

Improved Overcurrent Differential Protection

The sensitivity of the overcurrent differential scheme can be improved


by externally connecting a series resistor with each overcurrent relay,
as shown in Figure a.

These resistors are called stabilizing resistors.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 32 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 33 -

High-impedance differential system

Although
the
high-impedance
differential
scheme
also
uses
conventional current transformers, it
avoids the problem of unequal current
transformer performance by loading
them with a high-impedance relay.

This arrangement tends to force the


false differential currents through the
current transformers rather than the
relay operating coil.

Actually,
the
high-impedance
differential concept comes from the
above
improved
overcurrent
differential approach. It uses a highimpedance voltage element instead of
a low impedance overcurrent element
plus an external resistor.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 34 -

High-impedance differential system

The high-impedance differential relay consists


of an instantaneous overvoltage cylinder unit
(V), a voltage-limiting suppressor (varistor), an
adjustable tuned circuit, and an instantaneous
current unit (IT).

On external faults, the voltage across the relay


terminals will be low, essentially 0, unless the
current transformers are unequally saturated.

On internal faults, the voltage across the relay


terminals will be high and will operate the over
voltage unit. Since the impedance of the over
voltage unit is 2600 ohm, this high voltage may
approach the open-circuit voltage of the
current transformer secondaries. The varistor
limits this voltage to a safe level.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 35 -

High-impedance differential system

Since offset fault current or residual


magnetism exists in the current transformer
core, there is an appreciable dc component in
the secondary current.

The dc voltage that appears across the relay


will be filtered out by the tuned circuit,
preventing relay pickup.

The IT current unit provides faster operation


on severe internal faults and also backup to
the voltage unit.

The relay has successfully performed


operations up to external fault currents of 200
A secondary and down to an internal fault
current of 0.27 A secondary. Its typical
operating speed is 25 msec.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 36 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

Moderately high-impedance relay

They combine the advantages of high-impedance and percentage


restraint differential characteristics in one unique operating principle,
which provides reliable operation for internal faults and secure
restraint on external faults.

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1_114Q07- 37 -

They can accommodate a large range of line ct ratios, other relays may be
included with the same ct circuit, and the bus arrangement can easily be
changed or added to without concern.

The relay generally connects to the system with a special auxiliary ct


required for each restraint circuit when 5-A-rated cts are used.

One restraint circuit is required for each phase of each circuit or


combination of circuits connected to the bus.

The auxiliary ct permits the use of unmatched ct ratios to bring the overall
ratios into agreement and permit the possible use of other burdens in the
ct circuits.

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Moderately high-impedance relay

The relay operates on the principle of a differential comparison


between all incoming and out-going lines to the bus.

Circuits L1, L2, ... Lx, are connected to auxiliary ct's TM1, TM2, ....
TMx, respectively, which balance the main ct ratios.

Current fed into the relay becomes IL1, IL2, ... ILX, combining for a
total input of IT at terminal K.

The comparator circuit is made up of resistors RS, Rd3, Rd1, and


transformer TMD.

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1_114Q07- 39 -

Moderately high-impedance relay

Resistor Rs, across which is developed the restraint voltage VS, is


composed of two equal resistors.

Operate voltage Vd3 is developed across resistor Rd3. The differential


resistor Rd1 is a series connection of resistors that are connected
depending on the characteristics of the cts and the required total
circuit resistance.

ABB Power Technology


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Moderately high-impedance relay

The TMD is a toroidal core transformer. The voltage developed across


the primary Vd1 is proportional to the differential current Id1. This
produces the transformer secondary voltage Vd2. Secondary current
Id2 flow in such a way as to develop operating voltage Vd3 is greater
than the restraint voltage VS.

The toroidal reactor TMZ and associated diodes D1 and D2 make up


the voltage-limiting circuit. The start function is used to supervise the
trip.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 41 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 42 -

Protecting a bus that includes a transformer bank

Ideally, when the bus includes a power transformer bank, separate


protection should be provided for the bus and transformer, even
though both protection schemes must trip all breakers around the two
units.

Such a system offers maximum continuity of service, since faults are


easier to locate and isolate.

Also, using a bus differential relay for bus protection and transformer
differential relay for transformer protection provides maximum
sensitivity and security with minimum application engineering.

However, economics and location of current transformers often dictate


that both units be protected in one differential zone.

Protecting a bus that includes a transformer bank

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 43 -

A typical application, shown in Figure, protects a three-winding


transformer bus with four circuits.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 44 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 45 -

Protecting a double-bus single breaker with bus tie arrangement

The double-bus single breaker with bus tie provides economic and
operating flexibility comparable to the double-bus double-breaker
arrangement.

However, the ct's are normally on the line-side location, which results
in increased differential relaying problems.

Protecting a double-bus single breaker with bus tie arrangement

Two different approaches have been used in the bus protection of


such arrangements:

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1_114Q07- 46 -

the fully switched scheme

Protecting a double-bus single breaker with bus tie arrangement

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 47 -

the paralleling switch scheme

They are both complicated (inserting switch contacts in the ct circuits)


and / or imperfect in protection.

These schemes either require switching ct's and/or disabling the bus
protection before any switching operation.

This is a period when the probability of a bus fault occurring is high and it
is most desirable that the bus protection be in service.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 48 -

Protecting a double-bus single breaker with bus tie arrangement

A third scheme can be considered.

It is similar to the paralleling switched scheme except a check-zone


relay is added as shown.

Two bus differential zones are provided, one for each bus, with each
one overlapping the bus breaker.

Each primary circuit is normally switched to a specific bus, and relay


input circuits and breaker control circuits are wired accordingly.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 49 -

Protecting a double-bus single breaker with bus tie arrangement

The additional check-zone device supervises the trip circuits.

If it becomes necessary to clear one of the buses, all the primary


circuits may be switched to the opposite bus and it is needless to
disable the bus protection before any switching operation.

However, this scheme still has two drawbacks when any one or all of
the primary circuits is switched to the opposite bus:

(1) It will lose its selectivity, and

(2) it will reduce its sensitivity since the two relays are paralleled.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 50 -

AGENDA

PRINCIPLES

LINES PROTECTION

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

STATION BUS PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

SELECTING A PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

The linear coupler differential system

Multirestraint differential system

Overcurrent differential protection

High impedance differential system

Moderately high impedance relay

Protecting a bus with transformer bank

Protecting a double bus single breaker

Other protection systems

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 51 -

Partial differential relaying

This type of protection is also referred to as bus over-load or


selective backup protection.

It is a variation of the differential principle in which currents in one or


more of the circuits are not included in the phasor summation of the
current to the relay.

In this scheme, only the source circuits are differentially connected, as


shown in Figure, using a high-set over current relay with time delay.

The ct's protecting the feeders or circuits are not in the differential.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 52 -

Partial differential relaying

Essentially, this arrangement combines time-delay bus protection with


feeder backup protection.

The sensitivity and speed of this scheme are not as good as with
complete differential protection.

This method may be used as a backup to a complete differential


scheme, as primary protection for a station with loads protected by
fuses, or to provide local breaker failure protection for load breakers.

Some partial differential circuits use distance-type relays in the


scheme.

The use of a distance relay for this scheme produces both faster and
more sensitive operation than the over current scheme.

ABB Power Technology


1_114Q07- 53 -

Directional comparison relaying

Occasionally, it is desirable to
add bus protection to an older
substation where additional ct's
and control cable are too costly
to install.

In this instance, the existing ct


circuits used for line relaying can
also be used for the directional
comparison
bus
relaying
protection.

As shown in Figure, the


directional comparison relaying
uses individual directional over
current relays on all sources and
instantaneous
over
current
relays on all feeders.

Directional comparison relaying

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The directional relays close contacts when fault


power flows into the bus section. Back contacts on
the over current relays open when the fault is
external on the feeder.

All contacts are connected in series, and when the


fault occurs on the bus, the trip circuit is energized
through a timer.

A time delay of at least four cycles will allow all the


relays to decide correctly the direction of the fault and
to permit contact coordination.

In this scheme, the ct's in each circuit do not require


the same ratio and can be used for other forms of
relaying and metering.

The disadvantage of this scheme is the large


number of contacts and complex connections
required. There is also the remote possibility of the
directional elements not operating on a solid threephase bus fault as a result of 0 voltage.

Fault Bus (Ground-Fault Protection Only)

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1_114Q07- 55 -

This method requires that all the bus


supporting structure and associated
equipment be interconnected and
have only one connection to ground.

An over current relay is connected in


this ground path.

Any ground fault to the supporting


structure will cause fault current to flow
through the relay circuit, tripping the
bus through the multiple contact
auxiliary tripping relay.

A fault detector, energized from the


neutral of the grounded transformer or
generator, prevents accidental tripping.

This
scheme
requires
special
construction
measures
and
is
expensive.