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RISK AND RETURN
CHAPTER TWO
Practical Investment Management
Robert A. Strong
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2  2
Return
Holding Period Return
Yield and Appreciation
The Time Value of Money
Compounding
Compound Annual Return
Outline
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2  3
Risk
Risk vs. Uncertainty
Dispersion and the Chance of Loss
The Problem with Losses
•
Big Losses
•
Small Losses
•
Risk and the Time Horizon
Risk Aversion
•
Risk Aversion and Rational People
•
Risk and Time
Partitioning Risk
Outline
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2  4
More on the Relationship between Risk and
Return
The Direct Relationship
Risk, Return, and Dominance
Outline
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2  5
Introduction
A dollar today is worth more than a dollar
tomorrow.
A safe dollar is worth more than a risky
dollar.
People have different degrees of risk
aversion. Some are more willing to take a
chance than others.
A tradeoff exists between risk and return.
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Holding
period =
return
Ending Beginning
value value Income
Beginning value
_
+
Holding Period Return
The simplest measure of return is the
holding period return.
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Buy 100 shares
at $25 per share
Time
Sell the shares
at $30 per share
Dividend of
$0.10 per share
Example :
Holding period return = = 20.4%
$30  $25 + $0.10
$25
Holding Period Return
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Holding period return is independent of the
passage of time.
When comparing investments, the periods
should all be of the same length.
When there are stock splits or other
corporate actions, care should be taken to
ensure that the correct value is used for
calculating the holding period return.
Holding Period Return
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Current yield is annual income
divided by current price.
Example :
For a stock selling for $40 and expected to
pay $1 in dividends over the next year ,
current yield = $1 / $40 = 2.5% .
Yield and Appreciation
Dividend yield is used for stocks
whose income comes exclusively
from dividends.
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Appreciation is the increase in
value of an investment
independent of its yield.
Example :
When a stock bought at $95 rises to
$97.50,
it has appreciated by $2.50, or
$2.50 / $95 = 2.6% .
Yield and Appreciation
It excludes accrued interest, as
well as increases in value which
are due to additional deposits.
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P × ( 1 + r )
n
= F
where P = present value (i.e. price today)
F = future value
r = interest rate per period
and n = number of periods
The Time Value of Money
The time value of money is the notion that
a dollar today is worth more than a dollar
tomorrow.
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The current price of any financial asset
should be the present value of its expected
future cash flows.
The Time Value of Money
Example :
P × ( 1 + 0.0919 )
4
= $1,000
P = $703.50
What is the most that an investor would pay for
a zero coupon bond which matures in 4 years'
time, and has a redemption value of $1,000?
The interest rate is 9.19% .
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Many securities pay more than one cash flow
over their lives. In particular, an annuity is a
series of equal and evenly spaced payments.
A convenient expression for the present value
of an annuity is:
The Time Value of Money
where C = coupon or periodic payment
( )
]
]
]
+
− ·
n
r 1 r
1
r
1
C P
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The Time Value of Money
Insert Figure 2.1 here.
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Compounding
Compounding refers to the earning of
interest on interest that is earned previously.
where r = annual interest rate
n = number of compounding periods per year
and t = investment horizon in years
nt
n
r
1 P F
,
`
.

+ ·
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The more frequent the compounding, the
greater the interest earned.
In the limit, compounding occurs
continuously, and F approaches Pe
rt
.
Compounding
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Compound annual return is the
annual interest rate that makes the
time value of money relationship
hold.
Example :
A nondividendpaying stock bought 4.5 years
ago
at $40 and sold today at $78 has a compound
annual return of R, where $40(1+R)
4.5
=$78.
Compound Annual Return
It is also known as the effective
annual rate.
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A truly risky situation must involve a
chance of loss.
Risk vs. Uncertainty
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Dispersion and the Chance of Loss
There are 2 aspects to risk  the average
outcome and the scattering of the possible
outcomes about this average.
A common measure of statistical
dispersion is variance. The standard
deviation is the square root of the variance.
( )
∑
·
− ·
n
1 i
2
i
x x ) i ( prob Variance
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Dispersion and the Chance of Loss
Insert Figure 23 here.
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The Problem with Losses
Big losses  a large oneperiod loss can
overwhelm a series of gains
Small losses  can be a problem too if they
occur too often
Risk and the time horizon  as the time
horizon increases, the probability of losing
money decreases but the amount of money
that may be lost increases.
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2  22
Small Losses
Insert Figure 24 here.
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Risk and the Time Horizon
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Risk Aversion and Rational People
A safe (certain) dollar is worth more than a
risky dollar.
A rational person will choose a certain
dollar over a risky dollar.
Risk averse persons will take risks, when
they expect to be rewarded for taking the
risks.
People have different degrees of risk
aversion. Some are more willing to take a
chance than others.
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2  25
Risk Aversion and Rational People
Table 2.4 Four Risky
Alternatives
Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3
Choice 4 ___
Resulting Resulting Resulting
Resulting
Number Payoff Number Payoff Number Payoff
Number Payoff
150 $100 150 $200 190 $ 50 199
$1,000
51100 $ 90 51100 $ 091100 $550
100 $89,000
Avg. $100 Avg. $100 Avg. $100 Avg.
$ 100
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Risk and Time
Probability theory deals with how much
and how likely, but says nothing about
when.
Forecast variance increases indefinitely as
the length of the forecast period
approaches infinity.
To be comparable, returns must be
measured over consistent time intervals.
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2  27
While the returns over a long horizon may
be more uncertain, history suggests that
over long periods of time, the likelihood
that the investment will lose money is less.
Risk and Time
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Partitioning Risk
Undiversifiable risk is risk that must be
borne by virtue of being in the market.
It is also known as systematic risk or
market risk, and is measured by beta.
Diversifiable risk is also known as
unsystematic risk.
Total risk = undiversifiable risk
+ diversifiable risk
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Partitioning Risk
Business risk  the variability in a firm's
sales, or its ability to sell its product
Financial risk  associated with the
financial structure of the firm
Purchasing power risk  the possibility that
the rate of return on an investment will be
insufficient to offset the rise in the cost of
living
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Partitioning Risk
Interest rate risk  the chance of a loss in
portfolio value due to an adverse change in
interest rate
Foreign exchange risk  the possibility of
loss due to adverse changes in the relative
values of world currencies
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Partitioning Risk
Political risk  the possibility that a
government will interfere with a firm's
preferred manner of conducting business
Social risk  the potentially adverse impact
changing public attitudes can have on a
firm's ability to sell its product
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Partitioning Risk
Insert Figure 25 here.
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Partitioning Risk
Insert Figure 26 here.
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The Direct Relationship between Risk and Return
Insert Figure 27 here.
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Empirical financial research reveals clear
evidence of the direct relationship between
systematic risk and expected return, i.e.
riskier securities earn higher returns on
average.
The Direct Relationship between Risk and Return
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The Direct Relationship between Risk and Return
Insert Figure 28 here.
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Risk, Return, and Dominance
An investment alternative shows
dominance over another if it offers the
same expected return for less risk, or if the
security has a higher expected return than
another security of comparable risk.
Equivalent assets should sell for the same
price. This is known as the law of one
price.
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Risk, Return, and Dominance
Insert Figure 29 here.
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Return
Holding Period Return
Yield and Appreciation
The Time Value of Money
Compounding
Compound Annual Return
Review
SouthWestern / Thomson Learning © 2004
2  40
Risk
Risk vs. Uncertainty
Dispersion and the Chance of Loss
The Problem with Losses
•
Big Losses
•
Small Losses
•
Risk and the Time Horizon
Risk Aversion
•
Risk Aversion and Rational People
•
Risk and Time
Partitioning Risk
Review
SouthWestern / Thomson Learning © 2004
2  41
More on the Relationship between Risk and
Return
The Direct Relationship
Risk, Return, and Dominance
Review