# Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1

Sixth Term Civil Engineering

CE-313

Analysis and Design of Slabs

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Example: Design a cantilever projecting out from a
room slab extending 1.0m and to be used as balcony (LL = 300 kg/m2). A brick wall of 250 mm thickness including plaster of 1.0m height is provided at the end of cantilever fc’ = 17.25 MPa fy = 300 MPa

Slab thickness of room = 125 mm. Slab bottom steel in the direction of cantilever is # 13 @ 190 mm c/c

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:

125 mm

cantilev er

h L = 1000 + 2 125 L = 1000 + = 1063mm 2

1m

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
(contd…)

hmin

l 1063 = = = 89 mm 12 12

Let’s use the same thickness as of the room

h = 125mm > h min

d

d = 125 − 20 − 7 = 98mm

Main steel in cantilever is at the top

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Self weight of slab 75 mm brick ballast/ screed 60 mm floor finishes Total dead load

125 = × 2400 = 300kg / m 2 1000 75 = × 1800 = 135kg / m 2 1000 60 = × 2300 = 138kg / m 2 1000 = 300 + 135 + 138 = 573kg / m 2

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1

= 300kg / m 2

9.81 ω u = (1.2 × 573 + 1.6 × 300 ) × 1000 ω u = 11.46kN / m 2

ω u = 11.46kN / m

For a unit strip

9.81 Pu = 1.2( 0.25 × 1× 1) × 1930 × 1000 Pu = 5.65kN

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
(contd…)
Pu = 5.65kN ω u = 11.46kN / m

ω u L2 M u = Pu × L + 2
11.46 ×1.0632 M u = 5.65 × 1.063 + 2 M u = 12.48kN − m M u 12.48 ×106 = = 1.3 2 2 bd 1000 × 98
Per meter width

1.063 m

fc ' ω = 0.85 = 0.0488 fy

ρ = 0.0052

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
(contd…)
2

A s = 0.0052 × 1000 × 98 = 510mm

d # 13 @ 380 mm c/c already available in the form half the bent up bar from the room slab

#13 @ 380c / c ⇒ A s = 342mm

2

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
(contd…)

Remaining steel required at the top
Use

= 510 - 342 = 168mm 2

#10 @ 400c / c

#10 @ 380c / c
Distribution steel

= 0.002 × 1000 × 125 = 250mm

2

#10 @ 280c / c

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
#13 @ 380 c/c

Slab bottom steel

1500 mm #10 @ 280 c/c #10 @ 380 c/c

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1

Two-Way Edge Supported Slabs

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Two-Way Slabs
Slab resting on walls or sufficiently deep and rigid beams on all sides. Other options are column supported slab e.g. Flat slab, waffle slab.

Lx m= ≥ 0.5 Ly

Two-way slabs have two way bending unlike one-way slab.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Design Methods
1. 2. 3. 4. ACI co-efficient method Direct design method Equivalent frame method Finite element method
Ly Lx

Notes
1. In two-way slabs shorter direction strip carry greater %age of load. 2. Steel will be more in shorter direction. 3. Shorter direction steel will be placed near the outer edge to get more “d” means more lever arm to get more flexural capacity.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
ACI Co-efficient Method
Unit width strip is taken in both directions. The strip is designed separately for +ve and –ve moment
C = ACI co-efficient ωu = Slab load

M u = C × ωu × L n

2

“C” depends upon the end conditions of slab and the aspect ratio
Three tables are available for “C” • • • Dead load positive moment Live load positive moment -ve moment

M+ coefficients are increased by 25 % and Mcoefficients are reduced by 10 % to get the result more closer to accurate solution.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Minimum Depth of 2-Way Slab for Deflection Control
According to ACI-318-1963

hm = (inner perimeter of slab panel)/180 in
≥ 90 mm
2( L x + L y ) 180 2( L x + L y ) 165

For fy = 300 MPa

h min =

For fy = 420 h min = MPa According to ACI-3182005

h min =

L n ( 0.8 + f y 1500)

Lx m= Ly
Ln = clear span in short direction

( 36 × m + 9)

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Example: Design the 4 marked slab panels of an ordinary house. Use US
customary bars. fc’= 17.25 MPa fy = 300 MPa

1 450 0x 700 0

2 600 0x 700 0

Wall thickness = 228 mm

3 350 0x 600 0

4 600 0x 600 0

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
Panel Edge Conditions Panel # 1 Lx = 4.5m , Ly = 7.0m m = 0.64 > 0.5, 2way slab Panel # 2 Lx = 6.0m , Ly = 7.0m m = 0.86> 0.5, 2way slab Panel # 3 Lx = 3.5m , Ly = 6.0m m = 0.58 > 0.5, 2way slab Panel # 4 Lx = 6.0m , Ly = 6.0m m = 1 > 0.5, 2-way slab

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
(contd…)

Slab Thickness
Generally same depth is preferred for one monolithic slab Calculate hm for all the panels and select the largest value in

Panel # 1

h min = h min =

L n ( 0.8 + f y 1500) 36 × m + 9 4500( 0.8 + 300 1500 ) ≅ 140mm 36 × 0.64 + 9

Panel # 2

h min

6000( 0.8 + 300 1500 ) = ≅ 150mm 36 × 0.86 + 9

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
Panel # 3
(contd…)

h min
Panel # 4

3500( 0.8 + 300 1500) = ≅ 117mm 36 × 0.58 + 9 6000( 0.8 + 300 1500) = ≅ 133mm 36 ×1 + 9

h min

h = 150mm

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution:
(contd…)

Effective depth

d2
Long direction steel

d1

For short direction steel

Short direction steel

d1 = h − 27 = 123mm

For longer direction steel

d 2 = h − 20 − 13 − 10 2 = 112mm

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Self weight of slab 75 mm brick ballast/ screed 60 mm floor finishes Total dead load

150 = × 2400 = 360kg / m 2 1000 75 = × 1800 = 135kg / m 2 1000 60 = × 2300 = 138kg / m 2 1000 = 360 + 135 + 138 = 633kg / m 2

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1

= 200kg / m 2

9.81 1.6ωL = ( 1.6 × 200 ) × = 3.14kg / m 2 1000 9.81 1.2ωd = (1.2 × 633) × 1000

1.2ωd = 7.45kN / m 2

ω u = 7.45 + 3.14 = 10.59kN / m 2

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Solution: (contd…) Minimum Steel

A s min = 0.002bh A s min = 0.002 × 1000 ×150 A s min = 300mm
2

For a unit strip

Concluded