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CE-313

Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Different Types of Cracks

1.

**Pure Flexural Cracks
**

Flexural cracks start appearing at the section of maximum bending moment. These vertical cracks initiate from the tension face and move towards N.A.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Different Types of Cracks

2.

(contd…)

**Pure Shear/Web Shear Cracks
**

These inclined cracks appear at the N.A due to shear stress and propagate in both direction

45o

σ1 σn = f

τ

σ2

σ1 and σ2 are Major Principle Stresses

σ2

σ1

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1

Pure Shear/Web Shear Cracks

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Different Types of Cracks

3.

(contd…)

Flexural Shear Cracks In the regions of high shear due to diagonal tension, the inclined cracks develop as an extension of flexural cracks and are termed as Flexural Shear Cracks.

Flexural Shear Cracks.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Tensile Strength of Concrete

There are considerable experimental difficulties in determining the true tensile strength of concrete. In direct tension test following are the difficulties: 1. When concrete is gripped by the machine it may be crushed due the large stress concentration at the grip. 2. Concrete samples of different sizes and diameters show large variation in results. 3. If there are some voids in sample the test may show very small strength. 4. If there is some initial misalignment in fixing the sample the results are not accurate.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Tensile Strength of Concrete

(contd…)

**Following are the few indirect methods through which tensile strength of concrete is estimated.
**

A.

Split cylinder Test

This test is performed by loading a standard 150mmФ x 300mm cylinder by a line load perpendicular to its longitudinal axis with cylinder placed horizontally on the testing machine platen. Line Load The tensile strength can be defined as

ft = 2P / (Π DL)

Where P = Total value of line load registered by machine D = Diameter of concrete cylinder L = Cylinder height

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Tensile Strength of Concrete

B.

(contd…)

Double Punch Test

In this test a concrete cylinder is placed vertically between the loading platens of the machine and is compressed by two steel punches placed parallel to top and bottom end surfaces. The sample splits across many vertical diametrical planes radiating from central axis. Q Tensile strength can be defined as 2a

ft = Q / [Π (1.2bH-a2)]

Q = Crushing Load

2b

H

Q

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Tensile Strength of Concrete

C.

(contd…)

Modulus of Rupture Test

For many years, tensile strength has been measured in terms of the modulus of rupture fr, the computed flexural tensile stress at which a test beam of plain cement concrete fractures Because this nominal stress is computed on the assumption that concrete is an elastic material, and because this bending stress is localized at the outermost surface, it is larger than the strength of concrete in uniform axial tension. It is a measure of, but not identical with the real axial tensile strength. Two point loading

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Tensile Strength of Concrete

(contd…)

There are some relationships which relate fr with compressive strength of concrete

fr = 0.69 √ fc’

fc’ and fr are in MPa ACI code give a formula for fr

fr = 0.5√ fc’ For deflection control fr = 0.625 √ fc’

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Tensile Strength of Concrete

ft = 5/12 √ fc’

and

(contd…)

By some testing methods few empirical formulae are developed for the tensile strength of concrete:

ft = 1/4√ fc’

Tensile strength α √compressive strength. Tensile strength of concrete is generally 8 to 15% of compressive strength.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Transformed Section

Beam is a combination of concrete and steel so as a whole it is not a homogeneous material. In transformed section the steel area is replaced by an equivalent concrete area in order to calculate the section properties.

d

Transformed Section

•

Width of the extended area is same as diameter of steel bar and its distance from compression face remains same.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Modular Ratio, n

“The ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete is known as Modular Ratio”.

n = Es / Ec

Normally the value of n is 8 to 10 It is unit-less quantity

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Un-cracked Transformed Section

When both steel and concrete are in elastic range and tensile stress at the tension face of concrete is less than tensile strength of concrete the section is un-cracked Within the elastic range, perfect bond (no slippage) exists between concrete and steel, so

εs = ε c fs/Es = fc / Ec fs = (Es/ Ec) fc fs = n fc

Using this relationship, stress in steel can be calculated if stress in concrete and modular ratio are known

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Un-cracked Transformed Section

(contd…) Consider a beam having steel area As . In order to obtain a transformed section, the area of steel (As) is replaced by an equivalent area of concrete so that equal force is developed in both

Ps = Pc fsAs = fcAceq nfcAs = fcAceq nAs = Aceq

b

h

nAs/2

nAs/2

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Un-cracked Transformed Section

(contd…)

The equivalent area nAs/2 is shown on either side but steel inside the beam is removed which creates a space that is filled by area of concrete, thus the equivalent area on either side becomes

nAs/2 – As/2

•

Once the transformed section has been formed the sectional properties (A, Location of N.A., I, S etc) are calculated in usual manner

(n-1)As / 2

(n-1)As/2 (n-1)As/2 Transformed Section Total Area of transformed section = b x h + (n-1)As= Ag + (n-1)As

Concluded

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- Structural Engineering Lab 2
- Design of 2-Way Slabs
- Influence Lines for Beams
- Dos Design of Multistorey Building
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