# Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1

CE-313

Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams
(Ultimate Strength Design of Beams)

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Ultimate Strength Design of Beams
(Strength Design of Beams)

Strength design method is based on the philosophy of dividing F.O.S. in such a way that Bigger part is applied on loads and smaller part is applied on material strength.
favg = Area under curve/0.003

fc’
Stress

Crushing Strength

If fc’ ≤ 30 MPa

favg = 0.72 fc’
β1 = Average Strength/Crushing Strength

favg

0.85fc’

0.003

β1 = 0.72fc’ / 0.85 fc’ = 0.85

Strain

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Ultimate Strength Design of Beams
b h d

(contd…)

c

εcu = 0.003

0.85 fc

a

0.85 fc

a/2

Cc T = Asfs
Internal Force Diagram

ε
Strain s Diagram

fs
Actual Stress Diagram

fs
Equivalent Stress Diagram/ Whitney’s Stress Diagram

la = d – a/2

N.A.

In ultimate strength design method the section is always taken as cracked.
c = Depth of N.A from the extreme compression face at ultimate stage a = Depth of equivalent rectangular stress diagram.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Ultimate Strength Design of Beams
• The resultant of concrete compressive force Cc, acts at the centriod of parabolic stress diagram. • Equivalent stress diagram is made in such a way that it has the same area as that of actual stress diagram. Thus the Cc, will remain unchanged.

(contd…)

0.85fc c Cc a

0.85fc

a/2

Cc

f av × b × c = 0.85f c '×b × a 0.72f c '×c = 0.85f c '×a
0.72f c ' a= ×c 0.85f c '

Actual Stress Diagram

Equivalent Stress Diagram/ Whitney’s Stress Diagram

a = 1× β c

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Ultimate Strength Design of Beams
Factor β1
(contd…)

β1 = 0.85

for fc’ ≤ 30 MPa

Value of β1 decreases by 0.05 for every 7 MPa increase in strength with a minimum of 0.65

β1 = 1.064 − 0.00714f c '

≥ 0.65
≤ 0.85

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Determination of N.A. Location at Ultimate Condition
CASE-I: Tension Steel is Yielding at Ultimate Condition

εs ≥ ε y

or

fs ≥ f y

fy

ε y εs
CASE-II: Tension Steel is Not Yielding at Ultimate Condition

εs < ε y

or

fs < f y

For 300 grade steel 300 fy εy = = = 0.0015 E 200,000

For 420 grade steel fy 420 εy = = = 0.0021 E 200,000

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
CASE-I: Tension Steel is Yielding at Ultimate Condition

T = As × fs = As × f y
C c = 0.85f c '×b × a
For longitudinal Equilibrium

a/2

Cc
la

a la = d − 2

T = Asfs
Internal Force Diagram

As × f y = 0.85 f c '×b × a

T = Cc

a=

As × f y 0.85 f c '×b

and

a c= β1

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
CASE-I: Tension Steel is Yielding at Ultimate Condition (contd…)
Nominal Moment Capacity, Mn depending on steel = T x la a 
M n = As × f y ×  d −  2 

Design Moment Capacity
a  φb M n = φb As × f y ×  d −  2 

Nominal Moment Capacity, Mn depending on concrete = Cc a x la  M n = 0.85fc'×b × a ×  d −  2  Design Moment Capacity

a  φb M n = φb 0.85fc'×b × a ×  d −  2 

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Minimum Depth for Deflection Control 1 Δα I 1 Δα (Depth) 3
For UDL

Δ α ωL 3 Δ α ( ωL ) L
Deflection Depends upon Span, end conditions, Loads and fy of steel. For high strength steel deflection is more and more depth is required.

4

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
Minimum Depth for Deflection Control
ACI 318, Table 9.5(a)
(Contd…)

Simply One End Both End Cantilever Supported Continuous Continuous

300 420 520

L/20 L/16 L/14

L/23 L/18.5 L/16

L/26 L/21 L/18

L/10 L/8 L/7

Concluded