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EV203 Materials

in Civil
Engineering
Group Member: Lee Yan Bing
Lee Jing Yang
Mohamed Rashad
Osama Tariq

Non-structural building
component

Door Leaf
Non-structural building component
A moving structure that hinged along one
side

Function

To block and allow access to an enclosed space.


Protect the privacy of the people inside.
Control air flow and room temperature.
Visual enhancement.

Materials For Door Leaf


Material

thermal
resistance

Durability

Maintenance

Cost

Weight

Comment
Shrinks and swells

Wood

very good

variable

high

Very
high

with humidity
high

changes and
vulnerable to
termites

Glass

Depends on the
glass works

bad

low

high

medium

Corrosion resistant
Corrosive resistant

Aluminium

bad

good

very low

low

low

Steel

medium

superior

very low

high

high

Fiberglass

very good

very good

very low

high

low

Vulnerable to
corrosion
Corrosive resistant

Building Inspected
A single storey terrace house at Cheras.
The doors used in the building are basically
wooden doors.
To provide an attracting look to the building.

Advantages and Disadvantages of


Wooden Door
Advantages:
Insulator of heat and electricity
Requires less maintenance
Disadvantages:
Affected by termites and insects
High cost
Affected by the moisture

Deterioration of the Door Leaf


Some cracking found on the door.
-Might caused by poor finishing.
Shrinkage found on the door
-Low moisture content in the wood.

Suggested Materials to Replace Wooden Door


Fiberglass

Wooden Door is not suggested due to climate.


Fiberglass is more durable than wooden door.
Resistant to climate and termites.
Also a good insulator of heat and electricity.
Less or no maintenance required.
Fiberglass can be the same outlook of the wooden doors.

Door Frame
Materials in Civil Engineering
Non-Structural Building Components

Frame Defined

Top, horizontal member is the HEAD


The bottom, horizontal member is the SILL
The side, vertical members are the JAMBS
Intermediate members are MULLIONS

Materials of Door Frame

Materials

Wood

Vinyl

Fiberglass Aluminium Composite

Will not crack

Will not peel

Will not bend/warp

Paintable

Wood door-like profile

Available with wood clad interior

Will not stick due to expansion and


contraction

High energy-efficiency coefficient

Door Frame Inspected


Locating at No 1, Jalan Bee Eng 2, Taynton View
Aluminum Door Frame
Light, strong, durable, and easily extruded

Deterioration of
Door Frame
Bend and scratches at the edge of the door frame
Why?
Careless of the workers during its installation
Not found any serious deterioration as it just installed few
months ago.

Suggested Materials to Replace Door Frame


Fiberglass Door Frame
Why?
Thermal insulation properties
Aesthetics
Superior strength can be used in wider openings than
other materials
Higher Longevity
Low maintenance

Window Frame
Materials in Civil Engineering.
Non-Structural Building Components.
A supporting frame for the glass of a window.

Materials of Windows Frame


Materials

Thermal
Durability
Resistance

Maintenan Cost
ce

Recycled
Content

Wood

Very high

Variable

High

High

Low

PVC

Very high

Good

Low

Low

Very Low

Aluminium

Low

Good

Very Low

Low

~>95%

Steel

Medium

Superior

Very Low

High

~>98%

Fiberglass

Very high

Superior

Very Low

High

Medium

Window Frames Inspected


Locating at No 1, Jalan Bee Eng 2, Taynton View
Aluminum Window Frame
Light, strong, durable, and easily extruded

Deterioration of
Window Frame

Bend and scratches


Why?
Causes by careless of workers during installation
Meet extra force or impact

Suggested Materials to Replace Window Frame


Fiberglass
Why?
Thermal conductivity is 800 times less than aluminium
Low thermal expansion maintains the windows structural integrity
Superior weatherability and resistance tochemicals
Compression strength is 30000 psi
3 times stronger than aluminium and 9 times stronger than vinyl
windows.
80+ years without any maintenance

STAIRS
- A series of steps that go from one level or
floor to another.
- Non-structural building components.

Types of Stairs

Straight Stairs
Quarter Landing Stairs
Half Landing Stairs
Winder Stairs (Single, Double)
Arched Stairs
Spiral Stairs
Compact Stairs

Stairs Materials

Building Inspected
Aden Mall
Located in Yemen Country
Staircase were build by special architectural glass
which is chemically treated
Low iron glass which provides exceptional light
transmission, thickness, and virtually colors.

Suggested Materials
{ Wood }
Why?
Giving a new angle and a fresh, modern feel.
Available in a multitude of different shapes, styles,
designs and sizes.
Can be varnished or coated for added protection to last
longer.
Easy to clean
More affordable, Low cost!

Ceiling
Non structural building component
Is an overhead interior surface that covers
the upper limit of aroom.

Function
To cover and protect possible unsightly building services
such as heating pipes, electrical conduits and
ventilation/air conditioning ductwork.
To provide a soundproofed environment.
Gives visual enhancement to the building.

Materials of Ceiling
Materials

Description

Wood Ceilings

Wood ceilings are common in old Spanish and Turkish


architecture and can be found in many churches as
well as homes. Wood for ceiling applications can be
purchased in planks or tiles and can be nailed, glued
or suspended in a drop ceiling style.

Metal Grid Ceilings

Metal grid ceilings are common in commercial


building. There is a space above them where wiring,
plumbing and duct work are accessed easily. Ceiling
tiles are suspended in a metal grid system.

Dry Wall

Drywall is made from gypsum, a naturally occurring


mineral.. Standard drywall paper is white. Drywall
with green paper is used in moist locations like
bathrooms, although it is not recommended for
ceilings. Its water resistance means it may hide the
existence of a moisture problem or leak, causing
further damage. Can be known as plaster ceiling too.

Building Inspected
Aden Mall

Located at Aden city, Yemen.


Ground floor of Aden mall is inspected.
The ceilings are plaster ceilings.
The plaster ceiling gives an elegant look to the
building.

Deterioration of Ceilings
Spiderweb Cracks
Why?
Building settling over years
Moisture damage of the building
Poor drainage or waterproofing

Suggested Materials to Replace the


existing materials
Suggest Metal Grid Ceilings
The look can be changed by changing the type of tile,
different type of design, always give the fresh look to the
customer.
Easily handled. The materials is lightweight and have
uniform dimensions.
Exposed structural and mechanical components (pipes,
plumbing, cables etc) can be hidden inside the metal grid
ceilings.

Structural Building Component

Slab Floor
- A flat piece of concrete, typically used as a walking
surface, but may also serve as a load bearing devices
as in slab homes.
- Structural building components

Function of Slab Floor

Provide a flat surface


To support load
Sound, heat and fire insulator
Space between slab and ceiling can be used to
place building facilities

Materials of Slab Floor


Materials

Advantages

Disadvantages

Concrete slab floor

- Longer Spans
- Fire resistance
- Better quality control

- Higher cost

Timber Slab

- Contain some
flexibility
- Lower Cost
- Space beneath is ideal
for running cables,
pipes and etc.

- Kept dry always to


prevent fungus attack
- High maintenance

Precast Hollow Slab

- More economical
- Shorter construction
period
- Useful in multi-storey
buildings and
apartments.

- Higher incidence of
additional
reinforcement
- Need higher design
shear value to be
supported by beam

Suggested Slab Floor


Reinforced Concrete Slab Floor
Why?
Thermal comfort
Durability (long life, termite resistance)
Easy to maintain
Environmental Friendly
Versatile

Columns
Structural Building Component
Transmits, the weight of the structure above
to other structural elements below through
compression

Function
To transfer the load of top floors to the subsoil surface.
To support the building
To resist lateral force

Materials of Columns
Materials

Advantages

Disadvantages

Wood

Good Thermal
Resistance
Resistant to fire and
electricity

Vulnerable to Termites
Shrink and swells with
humidity changes

Reinforced Concrete

Has great compressive


strength
Resistant to fire and
electricity
Long Service Life

Mixing and casting


may affect the
compressive strength
Cost of the forms used
to cast concrete is high

Steel

Great durability
Great compressive
strength

Vulnerable to corrosion
Hard to handle

Building Inspected
Aden Mall

Located at Aden City, Yemen.


We inspected the carpark of the mall.
The columns are made of Reinforced Concrete.
The columns are big so that can support the load
on the building.

Deterioration of Columns
Cracks
Why?
Original design faults
Poor detailing
Use of unsuitable materials
Shortfalls in workmanship
Lack of routine maintenance

Suggested Materials to Replace RC columns


Still suggest to use reinforced concrete.
But with better finishing of concrete.
Has greater compressive strength compare to other
materials.
Heat and electricity insulator
Long service life with low maintenance cost
Economical structural material

Thank You!