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Grinding with ball mill systems

Separating

Separating

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Separating process

Air

FR

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Separation in 3rd Generation Separator


Basic function:
Material enters the separator at

Feed

Centrifugal Forces

the top.
Air stream is generated by

external fan.
Material falls down between rotor

Air
Guide vanes

Air

Turning cage rotor

and guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by rotor and stopped
by guide vanes, where they slip
down and leave the casing at the
bottom.
Fine material exits with airflow at

the lower/upper part of the casing


Returns

Air with fines

the rotational speed of rotor.


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Source: Chr. Pfeiffer QDK Separator

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Product fineness is adjustable by

Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

What is the separating efficiency dependent on?


Material:

fineness
- Feed (A)
- Fines (F)

Tromp curve

- Return (R)

Amount of feed
Feed distribution
Air:

V
F

Volume (V [m3/h])
Distribution
The fineness relationship mill
filter / separator fines

R
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Possible causes that limit the separating efficiency


The typical situations for 3rd generation separators are:
Uneven airflow and/or feed distribution to the rotor
Reduced separating airflow due to:

Separator fan damper (or speed) not at maximum


Fan nominal too low
Limited rotor speed due to mechanical problems or
insufficient nominal capacity of the motor and/or gear box

Contamination of the fines by coarse product


Separator fines much finer than final product

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Tromp curve key parameter


Tromp value [%]

Probability for a particle


to be in the return

100

Separator fines

Separator
return

Bypass

The BYPASS is one of


the best indicator of the
separator efficiency
[m]
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Tromp curve key parameter


Tromp value [%]

Coarse in fines

Agglomeration

100

Separator fines

Separator
return

Bypass

[m]
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Amount of material
Circulating load:

A, F & R en [t/h]
A= F +R
Circulating load factor:
u=

A
F

[-]
V

R
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Separator performance (1/2)


6.0
5.5

High

5.0
Circulating load factor u [-]

4.5
4.0

Normal

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0

Low

1.5
1.0
2'500

3'000

3'500

4'000

4'500

5'000

5'500

6'000

Cement fineness [cm2/g]


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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Separator performance (2/2)


50
45
40

High potential

By pass [%]

35
30

Medium potential

25
20
15
10

Low potential

5
0
1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

Circulating load factor u [-]


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Air volume
Separator specific feed load
Asl =

X 1000 [kg/m3]

V
Asl < 2.5 [kg/m3]
Separator specific fines load
Fsl =

X 1000 [kg/m3]

Fsl < 0.7 [kg/m3]


F

R
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Air distribution

Air

FR

Lower air speed

Finer product

Higher airspeed

Coarser product
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SEPT-07

Uneven airflow distribution


Uneven airflow distribution can

be identified from (1/2):


Observation of the ducting
configuration:

- General arrangement
- Relative position inlet / outlet
air ducts

Uneven wear of paintings or


steel along the guide vanes
height
Uneven wear of paintings or
steel along the rotor blades
height
Low separator efficiency
despite low material specific
loads
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SEPT-07

How to determine the airflow profile


Uneven airflow distribution can

be identified and evaluated


from (2/2):

Airspeed mapping at the


inlet of the separator volute
Static pressure profile in
each duct ( )
Fineness comparison of the
fines at each cyclone (mass
balance for each cyclone)

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Solutions for even airflow profile


Even airflow distribution with

air guide plates


The positioning and length of

the air guide plates should be


done considering the air flow
distribution in the ducting (start
from where the air is already
evenly distributed)

Too short
Good
Laminar and even
flow across whole
duct section
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Feed distribution

< 50 [mm]

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Symptoms of uneven material distribution


Uneven wear of paintings or

steel of the impact ring


Uneven pressure loss and

fineness of the fines in a


cyclone air separator
Separator efficiency is low in

spite of low material specific


loads
Configuration of airslides from

separator discharge to the


separator feed point(s)

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Solutions evaluation
Even as much as possible

material load to all separator


feeding points:
Adjust / install splitters
Install mixing boxes
Change airslides

configuration

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The fineness relationship mill filter / separator fines

MF
F

If F finer than C check:

Send MF to the separator feed


Cut finer at the static separator (if any)
Reduce mill ventilation
Consider a static separator (or cyclone)
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Separator operating point (1/2)


100
95

Rotor speed [%] of nominal

90

Iso - fineness line

85
80

3500 [cm2/g]

75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Air [%] of nominal


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SEPT-07

Separator operating point (2/2)


100

Bypass 3

95

Rotor speed [%] of nominal

90

Bypass 2

85
80

By pass 1

75
70
65

Bypass 1 > Bypass 2 > Bypass 3

60
55
50

CONCLUSION is to operate the fan at 100%

45
40
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Air [%] of nominal


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Grinding with Ball Mill Systems

Separators

What is separating?
Splitting a given material by particle diameter
Balls with 2, 4 and 10 mm diameter

> 3 mm

Separation by cutpoint of
3mm (e.g. by sieving)
Problem: Efficiency
of separation is
never perfect

< 3 mm
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Separation efficiency
The efficiency of a separation device (e.g. mill

separator) is a measure of the proportion of unseparated material following the separation process. It
indicates how much fines is in the coarse fraction
remaining and how much coarse is in the fines.

The efficiency is very much dependent on the separator.

Modern cage rotor separators show a far better


efficiency than older static and dynamic separators.

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Basic working principles Separators


Particles are accelerated by a vortex or a

rotating device into the direction of the


separator wall (Fz).

The big particles hit the wall (in older

separators) or the guide vanes (in 3 rd gen.


Separators) and slip down because they
are too heavy for transport by the air
stream.

The small and light particles are carried out

by the separator air (FL) stream supplied


by an internal (older separators) or an
external fan. The centrifugal force is
smaller than the impulse of the air flow.

Changes of airflow or distributor (rotor)

speed (consequence higher centrifugal


forces) lead to different product fineness.
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Main Separators used in Cement works


Type

Main features

Static separators and cyclones


adjustment via mechanical

No moving parts / fineness


modification

Dynamic separators 1st Generation Counter blades, distributor plate


internal fan/Fineness control
by mechanical adjustment or
counter blade speed change

and

Dynamic separators 2nd Generation Features as 1st Gen. / but external fans
and cyclones
Dynamic separators 3rd Generation Cage rotor instead of
counter blades
and distributor plate (variable speed drive) /
external fan / fineness
control by
rotor speed change

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Static separators and cyclones


Cyclone

Basic function:

fines

Material enters the cyclone


immersion tube

in the air stream at the top.


A vortex is generated.

feed

A fine vortex with opposite


cylindrical part

conical part

view from top

turning direction is
generated at the bottom and
carries the fine material back
to the top.
Coarse material goes to the

walls because of centrifugal


forces, slips down and
leaves at the bottom.
Fine material exits at top via

the immersion tube.


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tailings

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Static separators and cyclones

Cyclones of a
cement mill
separator

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Static separator and cyclones


fines

Grit separator
immersion tube

adjustable blades

adjusting device

Basic function:
Material enters the

separator in air stream at


the bottom.
A vortex is generated in the

top of the grit cone by the


blades.
Coarse material goes to the
housing cone
tailings cone

walls because of centrifugal


forces, slips down and
leaves at the bottom.
Fine material exits at the

rad.pos.

Product fineness is

tailings

adjustable by changing the


blade position.

feed

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top via the immersion tube.

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Static separator and cyclones


Grit separator

Adjusting device blades

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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Static separator and cyclones


Basic function:

KHD V-separator

Material enters the

separator from the top

Air + Fines

Coarse material slips down


Air

from plate to plate and


leaves at the bottom.
Fine material leaves the

separator at top together


with the air.

Plates

Returns
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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Dynamic separators 1st Generation


6

12

Basic function:
5

11
9
16

separator at the top.


Coarse material goes to the

10
8

Material enters the

3
15
2

Sturtevant
13

walls because of centrifugal


forces generated by the
distributor plate and
counter blades, slips down
at the grit cone wall and
leaves at the bottom (13).
Fine material exits at the

bottom of the casing (14).


14

1 fines chamber
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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tailings cone
air vane
inside drum
fineness control valve rod
gear reducer
main shaft and distributing hub
distributing plate

9 fan cone
10 counterblades
11 main fan blades
12 feed spout and intake cone
13 tailings outlet
14 fines outlet
15 air inlet
16 air outlet

Tikaria_Mill Workshop

Product fineness is

adjusted by counter blade


position and rods (5) (No
counter blade speed
adjustment is possible!)

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Dynamic separators 1st Generation (Sturtevant)


Internal Fan

Counter blades

External
adjustment of
fineness control
valve rods
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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Dynamic separators 1st Generation


Polysius Turbopol

Air vanes Grit cone

Distributor plate

Counter blades

Internal Fan

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Dynamic separators 1st Generation (Example: Pfeiffer Heyd)


Basic function:
8

Material enters the separator at

the top.

9
10

Air stream is generated by internal

fan (9).

because of centrifugal forces,


generated by the distributor plate
and counter blades, slips down at
the grit cone wall and leaves at
the bottom (11).

6
3

Airflow

Coarse material goes to the walls

Fine material is sucked into the


11
1 fines chamber
2
3
4
5
6

tailings cone
air vane
separation chamber
distributor + counterblades
distributor plate

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outside chamber (1) and exits at


the bottom of the casing (12).

12
7
8
9
10
11
12

fines
chamber
counter
blades
fan shaft
fan blades
feed spout
tailings outlet
fines outlet

Tikaria_Mill Workshop

Product fineness is adjustable

usually by rotational speed of the


plate and counter blades (6+7). 39
SEPT-07

Dynamic separators 1st Generation


Separator Type Heyd

Variable speed drive for


counter blades and
distributor plate
Fan Motor

Fan
Counter blades
Feed spout

Distributor plate

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Dynamic Separators of 2nd Generation


8

1 separation chamber
6

5
11

11
1

14

15

13

tailings cone

7
8
9
10
11
12

gearbox

air vanes
distributor plate
counterblades
feed spout
motor
fines outlet
tailings outlet
cyclones
air duct to fan

13 fan
14 dust collecting

2
3
4
5
6

pipe to filter

15 return air duct

Polysius Cyclopol
10
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Dynamic Separators of 2nd Generation (Wedag)

to filter
Air flow direction

fresh air

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Dynamic Separators of 2nd Generation


Basic function:
Material enters the separator at the top.
Air stream is generated by the external fan and

is recirculated.
Coarse material is separated by fan suction into

the main casing and leaves at the bottom via a


pendulum flap.
Fine material exits at the top of the casing by

airflow and enters the cyclone via gas duct. The


material separated by the cyclones leaves at
the bottom and goes into air slides. A part of the
recirculated air together with the fine dust from
the cyclones goes to a filter.
Product fineness is adjustable usually by

rotational speed of the plate and counter


blades.
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Dynamic Separators of 2nd Generation

Counter blades

Distributor plate
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation


Basic function:
Feed

Centrifugal Forces

Material enters the separator at

the top.
Air stream is generated by

external fan.
Material falls down between rotor
Air
Guide vanes

Air

Turning cage rotor

and guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by rotor and stopped
by guide vanes, where they slip
down and leave the casing at the
bottom.
Fine material exits with airflow at

the lower/upper part of the casing


Returns

Air with fines

Product fineness is adjustable by

the rotational speed of rotor.


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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Main parts cage rotor separator


Cage rotor

Bars

Guide vanes (in bad shape)

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SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation


11

Example: Polysius Sepol


5

10

1 guide vanes
2 rotor blades
3 distributor plate
4 rotor shaft
5 feed spouts
6 sealing

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7 air + fines outlet


8 tailings outlet
9 air inlet
10 gear box
11 motor

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Separators of 3rd Generation


Basic function:

Drive

Example: FLS O-Sepa


Air outlet
+ fines

Prim.
air

Sec.
air

Sealing

the top.
Airstream is generated by

external fan.

Feed

Material falls down between the

Distributor

Tert.
air

Material enters the separator at

Guide
vanes
Rotor

Fines

Coarses
Coarses

Centrifugal force

rotor and guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by the rotor and
stopped by guide vanes, where
they slip down and leave the
casing with the tailings outlet.
Fine material exits with the airflow

at the upper part of the casing .


Product fineness is adjustable by

Air force
Prim.air

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Gravity force

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the rotational speed of the rotor.


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Separators of 3rd Generation


Example: O&K cross-flow separator
feed spout

gearbox

motor

Material enters the separator at

the top.

distributor plate

Airstream is generated by an

air inlet

external fan.

air guide
vanes

rotor
blades
separating
zone

fines
coarses
air + fines
outlet

tailings outlet

Material falls down between the

rotor and guide vanes. Fines


are sucked in. Coarse particles
are accelerated by the rotor and
stopped by the guide vanes,
where they slip down and leave
the casing via the tailings outlet.

Fine material exits with the

airflow at the lower part of the


casing .

Product fineness is adjustable


shaft

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Basic function:

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by the rotational speed of the


rotor.
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Separators of 3rd Generation (FLS SEPAX)

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Separators of 3rd Generation (FLS SEPAX)


Basic function of the compact version:
Material enters the separator at the bottom with the air stream. The air

stream is generated by an external fan.


Material enters the rotor in the air stream via guide vanes. Fines are

sucked in. Coarse particles are accelerated by the rotor and stopped by
guide vanes, where they slip down and leave the casing on the side.
Fine material exits with the airflow at the top of the casing .
Product fineness is adjustable by the rotational speed of the rotor.

Additional functions roller press version:


Roller Press slabs enter desagglomerator under the compact separator

where they are crushed


Fines go up in the air stream to the separator
Coarses fall down and pass through the grit separator, where additional

fines are separated und go up in the air stream. Rejects go back to the
press
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SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (Polysius Sepol SM)


Basic function:
Rotor drive

Material enters the separator at

the bottom with the air stream


(e.g. air swept mill)

Fines with air

Air stream is generated by an

external fan.
Rotor

Material enters the rotor in the air

stream via guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by the rotor and
stopped by guide vanes, where
they slip down and leave the
casing at the bottom.

Guide vanes

Inspection doors

Fine material exits with the airflow

Returns

at the top of the casing .


Product fineness is adjustable by

Airflow with material from mill


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the rotational speed of the rotor.

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SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (KHD Sepmaster)


Sepmaster SKS-D (for RP* circuits)
feed material

Sepmaster SKS-LS (for ASM**)

feed material

desagglomerator
rotor

air+fines

air+fines
impact ring

air and fine


product

coarse fraction 2

coarse fraction 1
feed material+air

* Roller Press

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coarse product

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** Air Swept Mill 53


SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (KHD Sepmaster)


Sepmaster SKS
5

4
7

guide vanes

rotor blades

distributor plate

rotor shaft

feed spout

sealing

air + fines outlet

tailings outlet

air inlet

10 gear box
11 motor

11

10
8

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (KHD Sepmaster)


Basic function:
Material enters the separator at the top.
Air stream is generated by external fan.
Material falls down between the rotor and guide vanes. Fines are

sucked into the rotor. Coarse particles are accelerated by the rotor and
stopped by guide vanes, where they slip down and leave the casing at
the bottom.
Fine material exits the separator with the airflow at the top of the casing

.
Product fineness is adjustable by the rotational speed of the rotor.
Special features SKS-D: Additionally equipped with slab

desagglomerator at the top (use in roller press circuits)


Special features SKS-LS: Used for air swept mills. Function is very

similar to Polysius Sepol SM.


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SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (Pfeiffer QDK)


Rotor drive

Basic function:
Material enters the separator at

the top.
Air stream is generated by

external fan.
Material falls down between the

rotor and guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by the rotor and
stopped by guide vanes, where
they slip down and leave the
casing at the bottom.

Air inlet

Air +Fines Fine material exits with the airflow


at the lower part of the casing .

Product fineness is adjustable by

Rotor
Returns
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the rotational speed of the rotor.


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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (vertical roller mill ; Loesche)


Basic function:

Feed

Material enters the separator at


Separator drive

the bottom with the air stream.

Air stream is generated by

Air
Air

external fan.

Cage rotor

Material enters the rotor in the air


Guide vanes

Returns flow

Conical casing
Grit cone
Airflow with material from grinding table
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stream via guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by the rotor and
stopped by guide vanes, where
they slip down, leave the grit cone
at the bottom and fall back on to
the grinding table.

Fine material exits with the airflow

at the top of the casing .


The product fineness is adjustable

by rotational speed of the rotor.57


SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (Vertical roller mill)


Reject cone

Cage rotor

Guide vane system


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SEPT-07

Separators of 3rd Generation (coal grinding) in VRM


Basic function:
Coal from the grinding table enters the

separator at the bottom with the air


stream. (Used in vertical roller mills)
Air stream is generated by external fan.
Material enters the rotor in the air

stream via guide vanes. Fines are


sucked in. Coarse particles are
accelerated by the rotor and stopped by
guide vanes, where they slip down and
leave the casing at the bottom.
Fine material exits with the airflow at the

top of the casing .


Product fineness is adjustable by the

rotational speed of the rotor.


Pfeiffer RTKM Separator for coal mills
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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SEPT-07

Separator arrangements in grinding circuits


Single Pass design
Fresh-Air

Mainly used where


high cooling is
required

3
Product

4
2

Feed bins

Mill with water injection

Separator with filter

Mill dedusting filter

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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SEPT-07

Separator arrangements in grinding circuits


Standard Arrangement 1st Generation Separator

4a
1

3
5

Product
2

Feed bins

Mill with water injection

Separator with filter

Mill dedusting filter

4a

Grit separator

Optional cement cooler

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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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SEPT-07

Separator arrangements in grinding circuits


Cyclone Air Separator
1
3

Product

4
2

Feed bins

Mill with water injection

Separator with cyclone and dedusting filter

Mill dedusting filter

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Potential Problems
Wear /
Clogging

Wear
Sealing not tight

Wear
Wear
Blades too short
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Potential Problems
Wear,clogging
uneven feed distribution

Wear

Wear

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Potential Problems

Wear
Sealing not tight

Wear
Guide vanes not

correctly adjusted
Wear
Breakouts
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Tikaria_Mill Workshop

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Potential Problems / clogging


Cage rotor separator casing
partly clogged
guide vane
system

Material deposits
due to insufficient
airflow or airflow
distribution

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SEPT-07

Reduced separation efficiency 1st and 2nd generation dynamic separators

Gap between internal fan


and separating chamber
bigger than 5 [mm]
Reduced number of
counter blades

Gap between counter


blades and wall of
separating chamber bigger
than 10 [mm]

Possible consequence: Desired


fineness can not be achieved anymore
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SEPT-07