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Phillip

Kevin Lane

Kotler Keller
Marketing Management 14e

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Crafting the Brand


Position

Discussion Questions
1. How can a firm develop and establish
an effective positioning in the market?
2. How do marketers identify and analyze
competition?
3. How are brands successfully
differentiated?
4. What are the differences in positioning
and branding with a small business?

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Marketing Strategy

ST P
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efi
D

d
ne

Positioning

The act of designing a


companys offering and image
to occupy a distinctive place
in the minds of the target
market.

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Brand Positioning
Quality

Customer wants and


Brand
A

needs
Price

Company capabilities
Competitive actions

G
F

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Value Proposition
What
the
brand is

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What
the
brand
could be

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Value Proposition Examples


Compa
ny
(Produ
ct)

Target
Customers

Perdue Quality(chicken conscious


)
consumers

Key
Benefit
Tendernes
s

Volvo
SafetyDurability
(station
conscious
and
wagons
upscale families safety
)
ConvenienceDomino
minded pizza
s (pizza)
lovers

Delivery
speed and
good
quality

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Price
Premi
um

Value Proposition

10%

More tender golden


chicken at a moderate
price

20%

The safest, most


durable wagon in
which your family can
ride.

15%

A good hot pizza,


delivered promptly to
your door, at a
moderate price.

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Brand Positioning
Frame of Reference
Points of parity /
difference
Brand mantra

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Competitive Frame of
Reference

Identifying
Competitors
Analyzing

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Points of Parity / Difference


Points of
Parity
POP

Points of
Difference
POD

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Choosing POPs and PODs


Brand
Benefits
Brand
Attributes
Reasons
to
believe

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Proof
points

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Hypothetical Perceptual
(a) Current
Map
Perceptions

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Hypothetical Perceptual
(b) Possible
Map
Repositioning

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Brand Mantras
Nike authentic athletic
performance
Disney fun family
entertainment
Brand Mantra
Criteria:
Communicate
Simplify
Inspire

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Establishing Brand
Positioning
Communica
te

Category Membership
Category Benefits
Compare to
exemplars
Product descriptor

Internall
y

Points of
difference
Points of
parity

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Brand Positioning Bulls-eye

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Differentiation Strategies
Competitive
Advantage
Sustainabl
e

Leverageabl
e

Customer
Advantage
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Means of Differentiation
Employees
Channels
Image
Services

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Emotional Branding
Lovemar
Mystery
ks Sensualit
y
Intimacy

Emotional
Rationa
l

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Emotional Branding
Share of
Market
Share of Mind

Share of Heart

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Emotional Branding
Market Share

Mind Share

Heart Share

201
1

201
2

201
3

201
1

201
2

201
3

201
1

201
2

201
3

Competitor A

50
%

47
%

44
%

60
%

58
%

54
%

45
%

42
%

30
%

Competitor B

30

34

37

30

31

35

44

47

53

Competitor C

20

19

19

10

11

11

11

11

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Alternative Positioning
Approaches
Brand Narratives /
Storytelling

Brand
Journalism
Cultural
Branding
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Small Business Positioning


Creative, low-cost
research
Focus on fewer, stronger
brands
Integrated brand
elements
Create buzz
Build a brand community
Secondary associations

Creativity
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