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Career management & Internal

Mobility

A Career is a sequence of work- related

positions occupied by a person during his life


time.
Career Chart: Chart showing the possible
directions and Career opportunities available
in the organization.
Career plateau.Stagnation in the position.
Career Anchors: Edgar Schein, the founders of
the field of modern organizational psychology,
suggests that every one of us has a particular
orientation towards work and approach our
work with a certain set of priority and values.
He calls this concept our Career Anchors.

The Career Management


Goal:
Matching Individual and
The
The
TheEmployees
EmployeesRole
Role
TheOrganizations
OrganizationsRole
Role
Organizational
Needs
Career
Career
Management
Management

Individual
Individualand
and
Organizational
OrganizationalGoals
Goals
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The Basics Of Career


Management
Career
Management

Career
Development

Employees
Careers

Career
Planning

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FIGURE

HRs Role in Career Management

5.5

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part of Cengage
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FIGURE

Balancing Individual and Organizational Needs

5.6

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part of Cengage
Learning. All rights

FIGURE

Typical Line of Advancement in HR Management

5.7

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part of Cengage
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Alternative Career Moves


Promotion
Promotion

Exit
Exit

Career
Career
Moves
Moves

Transfer
Transfer

Demotion
Demotion
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part of Cengage
Learning. All rights

FIGURE

Stages of Career Development

5.9

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part of Cengage
Learning. All rights

The Plateauing Trap


Career Plateau
Situation in which for either organizational or

personal reasons the probability of moving up


the career ladder is low.
Types of Plateaus
Structural plateau: end of advancement
Content plateau: lack of challenge
Life plateau: crisis of personal identity

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part of Cengage
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Successful CareerManagement Practices

Placing clear expectations on employees.


Giving employees the opportunity for transfer.
Providing a clear and thorough succession

plan
Encouraging performance through rewards
and recognition.
Giving employees the time and resources they
need to consider short- and long-term career
goals.
Encouraging employees to continually assess
their skills and career direction.
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Identifying Career
Opportunities and
Competency
Analysis
Requirements

Measures three basic competencies for each

job: know-how, problem solving, and


accountability.
Job Progressions
The hierarchy of jobs a new employee might

experience, ranging from a starting job to jobs


that require more knowledge and/or skill.
Career Paths
Lines of advancement in an occupational field

within an organization.
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Learning. All rights

Identify Your Career Stage


Growth Stage: Birth to age 14 and is marked by the

development of self-concept.
Exploration Stage: Exploration Stage The period from 15
to 24 when a person seriously explores various
occupational alternatives
Establishment Stage: Establishment Stage roughly spans
ages 24 to 44 and is the heart of most peoples work
lives.Mid crises
Maintenance Stage: Maintenance Stage Between the
ages of 45 and 65 this stage is directed at maintaining the
persons place in the world of work.
Decline Stage: Decline Stage characterized by the
prospect of having to accept reduced levels of power and
responsibility in preparation for retirement.
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FIGURE 10A1Choosing an Occupational Orientation

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The Employers Role in


Career Development
Realistic Job
Previews

Networking and
Interactions

Challenging
First Jobs

Employers
Role
Career-Oriented
Appraisals

Mentoring

Job
Rotation
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Internal Mobility
It is the lateral or vertical movement of an

employee within an organization.


It may involve promotion, transfer,
demotion or separation
It may take place between jobs in various
departments or divisions.

Handling Transfers
Employees reasons for desiring transfers
Proximity to home town
Better job prospects
Personal enrichment and growth
More interesting jobs
Greater convenience (better hours, location)
Greater advancement possibilities

Employers reasons for transferring employees


To fill positions in big cities where business is growing.
To vacate a position where an employee is no longer

needed.
To fill a position where an employee is needed.
To find a better fit for an employee within the firm.
To boost productivity by consolidating positions.

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Purposes of Internal Mobility


Improve organizational effectiveness: To eliminate

structural defects, remove unwanted positions and


redesign other jobs. Internal mobility increases every
such change within an organization.
Improve employee effectiveness: Internal mobility
bridges gaps between what the person has and what
the organization demands in knowledge, skills and
abilities
Adjust to changing business operations: Internal
mobility helps short term adjustments as well as
long term adjustments during boom or recession
period.
Ensure discipline: Internal mobility like demotion can
be used to ensure discipline and correct wrong
placements and job assignments.

Transfer
A transfer is a change in job assignment. It may

involve a promotion or demotion or no change at


all n status and responsibility.
Purpose of transfer:
To meet the organization requirements:Changes in
technology,changes in volume of production,
production schedule, product line, quality of
products, change in organizational structure,
fluctuations in the market conditions etc demand
shift in job assignments.
To satisfy the employee needs: Employees may
need transfers in order to satisfy their desire to
work under a friendly superior, in a deptt/region
where opportunities for advancement are bright, in
native places etc.

Transfer
To utilize employees better: An employee may be

transferred because management feels that his skills,


experience and job knowledge could be put to better use
elsewhere.
To make the employee more versatile: Employees may be
rolled over different jobs to expand their capabilities.
To adjust the workforce: Workforce may be transferred from
a plant where there is less work to a plant where there is
more work.
To provide relief: Transfers may be made to give relief to
employees who are over burdened or doing hazardous work
for long periods.
To reduce conflicts: Where employees find it difficult to get
along with colleagues in a particular section, deptt or
location, they could be shifted to another place to reduce
conflicts.
To punish employees: transfers may be effected as
disciplinary measures.

Types of transfer
Production transfers: due to changes in

production.
Replacement transfers: due to replacement of an
employee working the same job for a long time.
Rotation transfers: initiated to increase the
versatility of employees
Shift transfers: transfer from one shift to another.
Remedial transfers: initiated to correct the wrong
placements.
Penal transfers: Initiated as a punishment for
indisciplinary action of employees

Transfer Policy
Reasons for mutual transfer of employees.
Norms to decide priority when two or more

employees request for transfers like priority of


reason, seniority
Specification of basis for transfer like job analysis,
merit, length of service.
Specification of pay, allowance, benefits etc that
are to be allowed to the employee in the new job.
Other facilities to be extended to the transferee
like special level during the period of transfer,
special allowance etc.

Promotion
Promotion refers to upward movement of an

employee from current job to another that is


higher in pay, responsibility and/or organization
level.
Promotion brings enhanced status, better pay,
increased responsibilities and better working
conditions to the promotee.
Promotion based either on meritorious or
continuous service has powerful motivational
value.
It forces an employee to use his knowledge,
skills and abilities fully and become eligible for
vertical growth.

Merit based promotions


Merit based promotions occur when an

employee is promoted because of superior


performance in the current job.
It motivates employees to work hard,
improve their knowledge, acquire new skills
and contribute to organizational efficiency.
It helps employer to focus attention on
talented people.
It also inspires other employees to improve
their standards of performance.

Seniority based promotion


Seniority refers to the relative length of

service in the same organization.


It faces certain limitations such as
The assumption that the employees learn
more with length of service is not valid.
It demotivates the young and more competent
employees and results in employee turnover.
It kills the zeal and interest to develop.
Judging the seniority is highly difficult in
practice.

Promotion Policy
A firm should constitute a promotion policy which

includes
Establish a fair and equitable basis for promotion
to provide equal opportunities for promotion in all
categories of jobs, deptts and regions of an org.
It should ensure an open policy to enable every
eligible employee for promotion.
The norms for judging merit, length of service,
potentiality etc must be established beforehand.
The mode of acquiring new skills, knowledge etc
should be specified to all employees.
Appropriate authority should be entrusted with the
responsibility of taking a final decision on
promotion.

Employee separation
Resignation
Retirement
Layoff
Retrenchment
Outplacements.
Suspension
Discharge and dismissal

Career Management and


Employee Commitment
(contd)

Career
Development
Programs

CommitmentOriented
Career
Development
Efforts

CareerOriented
Appraisals

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Career Management and


Employee Commitment
(contd)
Commitmentoriented career
development efforts

Career
Development
Programs

CareerOriented
Appraisals

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