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ENZYME

Enzymes
Are protein molecules
made by living cells

Enzymes
Act as catalysts :
speed up the rate of
metabolic reaction

Enzymes
Not chemically changed
at the end of reaction

General characteristics of
enzymes

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

speed up the rates of biochemical reaction in the


cells

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

Only a small amount of enzyme is needed to


catalyzed a lot of substrate

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

very specific each class of enzyme will catalyze


only one particular reaction

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

Not used up or destroyed in the reactions that they


catalyse, but can be reused again

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

Catalyse reversible reaction

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

Many enzymes are only able to work in the


presence of a coenzyme (or cofactor)

General Characteristics Of Enzymes

Enzymes are affected by changes in temperature


& pH

Naming of enzymes
An enzyme is named by
taking its substrate and
adding the suffix -ase
Sucrose + water

glucose + fructose

Types of Enzyme

TYPE OF ENZYMES

Intracellular Enzyme

Catalyses reactions within a cell


Formed on free ribosomes in the
cytoplasm

Extracellular Enzyme

Leaves cell and catalyses


reactions outside
Synthesized on ribosomes
attached to rough ER

Synthesized of extracellular
enzyme

Mechanism of enzyme reaction

Enzyme
substrate
complex

Effect of pH on enzyme

Effect of temperature

The Uses of Enzyme


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Application

Enzymes used

Uses

Dairy industry

Rennin

Coagulate milk proteins in cheese


manufacturing

Lipase

Used in the ripening of cheese

Fish industry

Protease

Removes the skin of the fish

Baking industry

Amylase

Breaks down of starch to glucose

Protease from
microorganisms

Breaks down and lower proteins in flour for


biscuit manufacture

Brewing industry Amylase from


germinating barley
Protease

Breaks down of starch to glucose for


fermentation by yeast
Breaks down of protein to amino acid for
yeast
Removes cloudiness during the storage of
beers

Application

Enzymes used

Uses

Biological
detergents

Protease, lipase and


amylase

Removes organic stains (blood, food,


saliva) from clothes

Amylase

Removes resistant starch residues

Leather tanning
industry

Protease

Removes hair from animal hides and make


leather softer

Textile industry

Amylase

Removes starch that is applied to threads


to prevent damage during wearing

Processing food

Trypsin

To pre-digest some baby foods

Amylase

Converts starch to glucose syrup

Paper industry

Amylase

Partial breakdown of starch to fill the gaps


between fibres to produce smoother paper

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Medical analysis

Trypsin

Removes blood clots and cleans wounds