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Chapter Presentation

Transparencies

Visual Concepts

Sample Problems

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Table of Contents

Section 1 Work

Section 2 Energy

Section 3 Conservation of Energy

Section 4 Power

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 1 Work

Objectives

Recognize the difference between the scientific and

ordinary definitions of work.

Define work by relating it to force and displacement.

Identify where work is being performed in a variety of

situations.

Calculate the net work done when many forces are

applied to an object.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 1 Work

Definition of Work

Work is done on an object when a force causes a

displacement of the object.

Work is done only when components of a force are

parallel to a displacement.

Nm

kgm2 / s2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 1 Work

Definition of Work

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 1 Work

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Objectives

Identify several forms of energy.

Calculate kinetic energy for an object.

Apply the workkinetic energy theorem to solve

problems.

Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.

Classify different types of potential energy.

Calculate the potential energy associated with an

objects position.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy

The energy of an object that is due to the objects

motion is called kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy depends on speed and mass.

1

KE mv 2

2

1

2

kinetic energy = mass speed

2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Kinetic Energy

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

The net work done on a body equals its change in

kinetic energy.

Wnet = KE

net work = change in kinetic energy

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Potential Energy

Potential Energy is the energy associated with an

object because of the position, shape, or condition of

the object.

Gravitational potential energy depends on height

from a zero level.

PEg = mgh

gravitational PE = mass free-fall acceleration height

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Potential Energy

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

use when a deformed elastic object returns to its

original configuration.

1 2

PEelastic kx

2

elastic PE =

1

2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Spring Constant

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Sample Problem

Potential Energy

A 70.0 kg stuntman is attached to a bungee cord with

an unstretched length of 15.0 m. He jumps off a

bridge spanning a river from a height of 50.0 m.

When he finally stops, the cord has a stretched

length of 44.0 m. Treat the stuntman as a point mass,

and disregard the weight of the bungee cord.

Assuming the spring constant of the bungee cord is

71.8 N/m, what is the total potential energy relative to

the water when the man stops falling?

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Potential Energy

1. Define

Given:m = 70.0 kg

k = 71.8 N/m

g = 9.81 m/s2

h = 50.0 m 44.0 m = 6.0 m

x = 44.0 m 15.0 m = 29.0 m

PE = 0 J at river level

Unknown: PEtot = ?

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Potential Energy

2. Plan

Choose an equation or situation: The zero level for

gravitational potential energy is chosen to be at the

surface of the water. The total potential energy is the

sum of the gravitational and elastic potential energy.

PEtot PEg PEelastic

PEg mgh

PEelastic

1 2

kx

2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 2 Energy

Potential Energy

3. Calculate

Substitute the values into the equations and solve:

PEg (70.0 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(6.0 m) = 4.1 10 3 J

1

PEelastic (71.8 N/m)(29.0 m)2 3.02 10 4 J

2

PEtot 4.1 103 J + 3.02 10 4 J

PEtot 3.43 10 4 J

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Objectives

Identify situations in which conservation of

mechanical energy is valid.

Recognize the forms that conserved energy can

take.

Solve problems using conservation of mechanical

energy.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Conserved Quantities

When we say that something is conserved, we mean

that it remains constant.

Mechanical Energy is conserved in the absence of

friction and air resistance

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Mechanical Energy

Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic energy and

all forms of potential energy associated with an object

or group of objects.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Mechanical Energy

Mechanical energy is often conserved.

MEi = Mef

OR

PEi + KEi = PEf + Kef

means

mghi + mvi2 = mghf + mvf2

initial mechanical energy = final mechanical energy

(in the absence of friction)

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Sample Problem

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Starting from rest, a child zooms down a frictionless

slide from an initial height of 3.00 m. What is her

velocity at the bottom of the slide? Assume she has a

mass of 25.0 kg.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

1. Define

Given:

h = hi = 3.00 m

m = 25.0 kg

vi = 0.0 m/s

hf = 0 m

Unknown:

vf = ?

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

2. Plan

Choose an equation or situation: The slide is

frictionless, so mechanical energy is conserved.

Kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy are

the only forms of energy present.

1

KE

mv 2

2

PE mgh

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

2. Plan, continued

The zero level chosen for gravitational potential

energy is the bottom of the slide. Because the child

ends at the zero level, the final gravitational potential

energy is zero.

PEg,f = 0

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

2. Plan, continued

The initial gravitational potential energy at the top of

the slide is

PEg,i = mghi = mgh

Because the child starts at rest, the initial kinetic

energy at the top is zero.

KEi = 0

Therefore, the final kinetic1energy is as follows:

KEf mv f2

2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

3. Calculate

Substitute values into the equations:

PEg,i = (25.0 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(3.00 m) = 736 J

KEf = (1/2)(25.0 kg)vf2

Now use the calculated quantities to evaluate the final

velocity.

MEi = MEf

PEi + KEi = PEf + KEf

736 J + 0 J = 0 J + (0.500)(25.0 kg)vf2

vf = 7.67 m/s

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Mechanical Energy is

not conserved in the

presence of friction.

lost?

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 4 Power

Objectives

Relate the concepts of energy, time, and power.

Calculate power in two different ways.

Explain the effect of machines on work and power.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 4 Power

Power is a quantity that measures the rate at which

work is done or energy is transformed.

P = W/t

power = work time interval

An alternate equation for power in terms of force and

speed is

P = Fv

power = force velocity

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 4 Power

Watt (W)

J/s

Horsepower (hp) = 746 watts

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 4 Power

Power

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Multiple Choice

1. In which of the following situations is work not being

done?

A. A chair is lifted vertically with respect to the floor.

B. A bookcase is slid across carpeting.

C. A table is dropped onto the ground.

D. A stack of books is carried at waist level across a

room.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

1. In which of the following situations is work not being

done?

A. A chair is lifted vertically with respect to the floor.

B. A bookcase is slid across carpeting.

C. A table is dropped onto the ground.

D. A stack of books is carried at waist level across a

room.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

2. Which of the following equations correctly describes

the relation between power,work, and time?

P

F. W

t

t

G. W

P

W

H. P

t

t

J. P

W

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

2. Which of the following equations correctly describes

the relation between power,work, and time?

P

F. W

t

t

G. W

P

W

H. P

t

t

J. P

W

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Use the graph below to answer questions 35. The

graph shows the energy of a 75 g yo-yo at different

times as the yo-yo moves up and down on its string.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

3. By what amount does the mechanical energy of the

yo-yo change after 6.0 s?

A. 500 mJ

B. 0 mJ

C. 100 mJ

D. 600 mJ

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

3. By what amount does the mechanical energy of the

yo-yo change after 6.0 s?

A. 500 mJ

B. 0 mJ

C. 100 mJ

D. 600 mJ

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

4. What is the speed of the yo-yo after 4.5 s?

F. 3.1 m/s

G. 2.3 m/s

H. 3.6 m/s

J. 1.6 m/s

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

4. What is the speed of the yo-yo after 4.5 s?

F. 3.1 m/s

G. 2.3 m/s

H. 3.6 m/s

J. 1.6 m/s

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

5. What is the maximum height of the yo-yo?

A. 0.27 m

B. 0.54 m

C. 0.75 m

D. 0.82 m

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

5. What is the maximum height of the yo-yo?

A. 0.27 m

B. 0.54 m

C. 0.75 m

D. 0.82 m

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

6. A car with mass m requires 5.0 kJ of work to move

from rest to a final speed v. If this same amount of

work is performed during the same amount of time

on a car with a mass of 2m, what is the final speed

of the second car?

F. 2v

G.

2v

v

H.

2

v

J.

2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

6. A car with mass m requires 5.0 kJ of work to move

from rest to a final speed v. If this same amount of

work is performed during the same amount of time

on a car with a mass of 2m, what is the final speed

of the second car?

F. 2v

G.

2v

v

H.

2

v

J.

2

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Use the passage below to answer questions 78.

A 70.0 kg base runner moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s

begins his slide into second base. The coefficient of

friction between his clothes and Earth is 0.70. His

slide lowers his speed to zero just as he reaches the

base.

7. How much mechanical energy is lost because of

friction acting on the runner?

A. 1100 J

B. 560 J

C. 140 J

D. 0 J

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Use the passage below to answer questions 78.

A 70.0 kg base runner moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s

begins his slide into second base. The coefficient of

friction between his clothes and Earth is 0.70. His

slide lowers his speed to zero just as he reaches the

base.

7. How much mechanical energy is lost because of

friction acting on the runner?

A. 1100 J

B. 560 J

C. 140 J

D. 0 J

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Use the passage below to answer questions 78.

A 70.0 kg base runner moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s

begins his slide into second base. The coefficient of

friction between his clothes and Earth is 0.70. His

slide lowers his speed to zero just as he reaches the

base.

8. How far does the runner slide?

F. 0.29 m

G. 0.57 m

H. 0.86 m

J. 1.2 m

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Use the passage below to answer questions 78.

A 70.0 kg base runner moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s

begins his slide into second base. The coefficient of

friction between his clothes and Earth is 0.70. His

slide lowers his speed to zero just as he reaches the

base.

8. How far does the runner slide?

F. 0.29 m

G. 0.57 m

H. 0.86 m

J. 1.2 m

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Use the passage below to answer questions 910.

A spring scale has a spring with a force constant of

250 N/m and a weighing pan with a mass of 0.075

kg. During one weighing, the spring is stretched a

distance of 12 cm from equilibrium. During a second

weighing, the spring is stretched a distance of 18 cm.

How far does the runner slide?

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

9. How much greater is the elastic potential energy of

the stretched spring during the second weighing than

during the first weighing?

9

A.

4

3

B.

2

2

C.

3

4

D.

9

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

9. How much greater is the elastic potential energy of

the stretched spring during the second weighing than

during the first weighing?

9

A.

4

3

B.

2

2

C.

3

4

D.

9

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

10. If the spring is suddenly released after each

weighing, the weighing pan moves back and forth

through the equilibrium position. What is the ratio of

the pans maximum speed after the second weighing

to the pans maximum speed after the first weighing?

Consider the force of gravity on the pan to be

negligible.

9

2

F.

H.

4

3

3

4

G.

J.

2

9

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

10. If the spring is suddenly released after each

weighing, the weighing pan moves back and forth

through the equilibrium position. What is the ratio of

the pans maximum speed after the second weighing

to the pans maximum speed after the first weighing?

Consider the force of gravity on the pan to be

negligible.

9

2

F.

H.

4

3

3

4

G.

J.

2

9

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Short Response

11. A student with a mass of 66.0 kg climbs a staircase

in 44.0 s. If the distance between the base and the

top of the staircase is 14.0 m, how much power will

the student deliver by climbing the stairs?

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

11. A student with a mass of 66.0 kg climbs a staircase

in 44.0 s. If the distance between the base and the

top of the staircase is 14.0 m, how much power will

the student deliver by climbing the stairs?

Answer: 206 W

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1213 on the

information below.

A 75.0 kg man jumps from a window that is 1.00 m

above a sidewalk.

12. Write the equation for the mans speed when he

strikes the ground.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1213 on the

information below.

A 75.0 kg man jumps from a window that is 1.00 m

above a sidewalk.

12. Write the equation for the mans speed when he

strikes the ground.

Answer: v 2gh

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1213 on the

information below.

A 75.0 kg man jumps from a window that is 1.00 m

above a sidewalk.

13. Calculate the mans speed when he strikes the

ground.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1213 on the

information below.

A 75.0 kg man jumps from a window that is 1.00 m

above a sidewalk.

13. Calculate the mans speed when he strikes the

ground.

Answer: 4.4 m/s

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Extended Response

Base your answers to questions 1416 on the

information below.

A projectile with a mass of 5.0 kg is shot horizontally

from a height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.

The projectiles initial speed is 17 m/s. Calculate the

following for the instant before the projectile hits the

surface:

14. The work done on the projectile by gravity.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1416 on the

information below.

A projectile with a mass of 5.0 kg is shot horizontally

from a height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.

The projectiles initial speed is 17 m/s. Calculate the

following for the instant before the projectile hits the

surface:

14. The work done on the projectile by gravity.

Answer: 1200 J

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1416 on the

information below.

A projectile with a mass of 5.0 kg is shot horizontally

from a height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.

The projectiles initial speed is 17 m/s. Calculate the

following for the instant before the projectile hits the

surface:

15. The change in kinetic energy since the projectile

was fired.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1416 on the

information below.

A projectile with a mass of 5.0 kg is shot horizontally

from a height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.

The projectiles initial speed is 17 m/s. Calculate the

following for the instant before the projectile hits the

surface:

15. The change in kinetic energy since the projectile

was fired.

Answer: 1200 J

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1416 on the

information below.

A projectile with a mass of 5.0 kg is shot horizontally

from a height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.

The projectiles initial speed is 17 m/s. Calculate the

following for the instant before the projectile hits the

surface:

16. The final kinetic energy of the projectile.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Base your answers to questions 1416 on the

information below.

A projectile with a mass of 5.0 kg is shot horizontally

from a height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.

The projectiles initial speed is 17 m/s. Calculate the

following for the instant before the projectile hits the

surface:

16. The final kinetic energy of the projectile.

Answer: 1900 J

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

17. A skier starts from rest at the top of a hill that is

inclined at 10.5 with the horizontal. The hillside is

200.0 m long, and the coefficient of friction between

the snow and the skis is 0.075. At the bottom of the

hill, the snow is level and the coefficient of friction is

unchanged. How far does the skier move along the

horizontal portion of the snow before coming to rest?

Show all of your work.

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

17. A skier starts from rest at the top of a hill that is

inclined at 10.5 with the horizontal. The hillside is

200.0 m long, and the coefficient of friction between

the snow and the skis is 0.075. At the bottom of the

hill, the snow is level and the coefficient of friction is

unchanged. How far does the skier move along the

horizontal portion of the snow before coming to rest?

Show all of your work.

Answer: 290 m

Chapter menu

Resources

Chapter 5

Section 3 Conservation of

Energy

Mechanical Energy

Chapter menu

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