Momentum And Impulse7

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Momentum And Impulse7

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force on an object is not constant.

DEFINITION OF IMPULSE

The impulse of a force is the product of the average

force and the time interval during which the force acts:

J F t

Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction

as the average force.

newton seconds (N s)

J F t

The linear momentum of an object is the product

of the objects mass times its velocity:

p mv

Linear momentum is a vector quantity and has the same

direction as the velocity.

vf vo

a

t

F ma

mvf mvo

F t

F t mv f mv o

IMPULSE-MOMENTUM THEOREM

When a net force acts on an object, the impulse of

this force is equal to the change in the momentum

of the object

impulse

F t mv f mv o

final momentum

initial momentum

Rain comes down with a velocity of -15 m/s and hits the

roof of a car. The mass of rain per second that strikes

the roof of the car is 0.060 kg/s. Assuming that rain comes

to rest upon striking the car, find the average force

exerted by the rain on the roof.

F t mv f mv o

the raindrops, the net force

on a raindrop is simply the

force on the raindrop due to

the roof.

F t mv f mv o

m

F

vo

t

F 0.060 kg s 15 m s 0.90 N

Instead of rain, suppose hail is falling. Unlike rain, hail usually

bounces off the roof of the car.

If hail fell instead of rain, would the force be smaller than,

equal to, or greater than that calculated in Example 2?

between two objects..

the system exert on each other.

External forces Forces exerted on objects

by agents external to the system.

F t mv f mv o

OBJECT 1

W1 F12 t m1 v f 1 m1 v o1

OBJECT 2

W2 F21 t m2 v f 2 m2 v o 2

W1 F12 t m1 v f 1 m1 v o1

W2 F21 t m2 v f 2 m2 v o 2

W1 W2 F12 F21 t m1 v f 1 m2 v f 2 m1 v o1 m2 v o 2

F12 F21

Pf

Po

W1 W2 t Pf Po

sum of average external forces t Pf Po

sum of average external forces t Pf Po

If the sum of the external forces is zero, then

0 Pf Po

Pf Po

The total linear momentum of an isolated system is constant

(conserved). An isolated system is one for which the sum of

the average external forces acting on the system is zero.

Imagine two balls colliding on a billiard

table that is friction-free. Use the momentum

conservation principle in answering the

following questions. (a) Is the total momentum

of the two-ball system the same before

and after the collision? (b) Answer

part (a) for a system that contains only

one of the two colliding

balls.

PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM

The total linear momentum of an isolated system is constant

(conserved). An isolated system is one for which the sum of

the average external forces acting on the system is zero.

system is zero.

system is not zero.

Starting from rest, two skaters

push off against each other on

ice where friction is negligible.

One is a 54-kg woman and

one is a 88-kg man. The woman

moves away with a speed of

+2.5 m/s. Find the recoil velocity

of the man.

Pf Po

m1v f 1 m2 v f 2 0

vf 2

vf 2

m1v f 1

m2

54 kg 2.5 m s

1.5 m s

88 kg

1. Decide which objects are included in the system.

2. Relative to the system, identify the internal and external forces.

3. Verify that the system is isolated.

4. Set the final momentum of the system equal to its initial momentum.

Remember that momentum is a vector.

The total linear momentum is conserved when two objects

collide, provided they constitute an isolated system.

energy of the system after the collision is equal to

the total kinetic energy before the collision.

Inelastic collision -- One in which the total kinetic

energy of the system after the collision is not equal

to the total kinetic energy before the collision; if the

objects stick together after colliding, the collision is

said to be completely inelastic.

The mass of the block of wood

is 2.50-kg and the mass of the

bullet is 0.0100-kg. The block

swings to a maximum height of

0.650 m above the initial position.

Find the initial speed of the

bullet.

to the collision:

m1v f 1 m2 v f 2 m1vo1 m2 vo 2

m1 m2 v f

vo1

m1vo1

m1 m2 v f

m1

to the swinging motion:

mgh 12 mv 2

m1 m2 gh f

1

2

m1 m2 v 2f

gh f 12 v 2f

v f 2 gh f 2 9.80 m s 2 0.650 m

v f 2 9.80 m s 2 0.650 m

vo1

m1 m2 v f

m1

0.0100 kg 2.50 kg

vo1

0.0100 kg

m1v f 1x m2 v f 2 x m1vo1x m2 vo 2 x

m1v f 1 y m2 v f 2 y m1vo1 y m2 vo 2 y

The center of mass is a point that represents the average location for

the total mass of a system.

xcm

m1 x1 m2 x2

m1 m2

xcm

m1x1 m2 x2

m1 m2

vcm

m1v1 m2 v2

m1 m2

vcm

m1v1 m2 v2

m1 m2

therefore the velocity of the center of mass does not change.

BEFORE

vcm

m1v1 m2 v2

0

m1 m2

AFTER

vcm

88 kg 1.5 m s 54 kg 2.5 m s

0.002 0

88 kg 54 kg

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