Momentum And Impulse 4

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Momentum And Impulse 4

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OMENTUM!

Momentum

Impulse

Conservation of Momentum in

1 Dimension

Conservation of Momentum in

2 Dimensions

Angular Momentum

Torque

Moment of Inertia

Momentum Defined

p = mv

p = momentum vector

m = mass

v = velocity vector

Momentum Facts

p = mv

Momentum is a vector quantity!

Velocity and momentum vectors point in the same direction.

SI unit for momentum: kg m /s (no special name).

Momentum is a conserved quantity (this will be proven later).

A net force is required to change a bodys momentum.

Momentum is directly proportional to both mass and speed.

Something big and slow could have the same momentum as

something small and fast.

Momentum Examples

10 kg

3 m /s

10 kg

30 kg m /s

longer than the velocity vector, since only vectors of the same

quantity can be compared in this way.

/s

m

k

9

26

5g

p = 45 kg m /s

at 26 N of E

Equivalent Momenta

p = 1.44 105 kg m /s

Bus: m = 9000 kg; v = 16 m /s

p = 1.44 105 kg m /s

p = 1.44 105 kg m /s

continued on next slide

Equivalent Momenta

(cont.)

The train, bus, and car all have different masses and speeds,

but their momenta are the same in magnitude. The massive

train has a slow speed; the low-mass car has a great speed;

and the bus has moderate mass and speed. Note: We can

only say that the magnitudes of their momenta are equal

since theyre arent moving in the same direction.

The difficulty in bringing each vehicle to rest--in terms of a

combination of the force and time required--would be the

same, since they each have the same momentum.

Impulse Defined

Impulse is defined as the product force acting on an

object and the time during which the force acts. The

symbol for impulse is J. So, by definition:

J=Ft

Example: A 50 N force is applied to a 100 kg boulder

for 3 s. The impulse of this force is J = (50 N) (3 s)

= 150 N s.

Note that we didnt need to know the mass of the

object in the above example.

Impulse Units

J = F t shows why the SI unit for impulse is the Newton second.

There is no special name for this unit, but it is equivalent to a kg m /s.

Fnet = m a shows this is

equivalent to a newton.

Therefore, impulse and momentum have the same units, which leads

to a useful theorem.

The impulse due to all forces acting on an object (the net force) is

equal to the change in momentum of the object:

Fnet t = p

We know the units on both sides of the equation are the same

(last slide), but lets prove the theorem formally:

Fnet t = m a t = m ( v / t) t = m v = p

Stopping Time

Ft = Ft

Imagine a car hitting a wall and coming to rest. The force on the car due

to the wall is large (big F ), but that force only acts for a small amount of

time (little t ). Now imagine the same car moving at the same speed but

this time hitting a giant haystack and coming to rest. The force on the

car is much smaller now (little F ), but it acts for a much longer time (big

t ). In each case the impulse involved is the same since the change in

momentum of the car is the same. Any net force, no matter how small,

can bring an object to rest if it has enough time. A pole vaulter can fall

from a great height without getting hurt because the mat applies a

smaller force over a longer period of time than the ground alone would.

A 1.3 kg ball is coming straight at a 75 kg soccer player at 13 m/s who

kicks it in the exact opposite direction at 22 m/s with an average force

of 1200 N. How long are his foot and the ball in contact?

answer: Well use Fnet t = p. Since the ball

changes direction, p = m v = m (vf - v0)

= 1.3 [22 - (-13)] = (1.3 kg) (35 m/s)

= 45.5 kg m /s. Thus, t = 45.5 / 1200

= 0.0379 s, which is just under 40 ms.

During this contact time the ball compresses substantially and then

decompresses. This happens too quickly for us to see, though. This

compression occurs in many cases, such as hitting a baseball or golf

ball.

Fnet (N)

Net area = p

6

t (s)

for 6 s, thereafter in the opposite direction. Since impulse is Fnet t, the

area under the curve is equal to the impulse, which is the change in

momentum. The net change in momentum is the area above the curve

minus the area below the curve. This is just like a v vs. t graph, in

which net displacement is given area under the curve.

Whenever two objects collide (or when they exert forces on each

other without colliding, such as gravity) momentum of the system

(both objects together) is conserved. This mean the total momentum

of the objects is the same before and after the collision.

before: p = m1 v1 - m2 v2

v2

v1

m1

m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb

after: p = - m1 va + m2 vb

va

m1

m2

vb

On the last slide the boxes were drawn going in the opposite direction

after colliding. This isnt always the case. For example, when a bat hits

a ball, the ball changes direction, but the bat doesnt. It doesnt really

matter, though, which way we draw the velocity vectors in after

picture. If we solved the conservation of momentum equation (red box)

for vb and got a negative answer, it would mean that m2 was still moving

to the left after the collision. As long as we interpret our answers

correctly, it matters not how the velocity vectors are drawn.

v2

v1

m1

m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb

va

m1

m2

vb

Sample Problem 1

35 g

7 kg

700 m/s

v=0

A rifle fires a bullet into a giant slab of butter on a frictionless surface.

The bullet penetrates the butter, but while passing through it, the bullet

pushes the butter to the left, and the butter pushes the bullet just as

hard to the right, slowing the bullet down. If the butter skids off at 4

cm/s after the bullet passes through it, what is the final speed of the

bullet?

(The mass of the rifle matters not.)

35 g

v=?

4 cm/s

7 kg

continued on next slide

Sample Problem 1

(cont.)

momentum, converting all units to meters and kilograms.

35 g

7 kg

= 24.5 kg m /s

v=0

35 g

4 cm/s

v=?

p before = p after

7 kg

700 m/s

= 0.28 + 0.035 v

v = 692 m/s

direction of the bullet in the after picture.

Sample Problem 2

35 g

7 kg

700 m/s

v=0

Same as the last problem except this time its a block of wood rather than

butter, and the bullet does not pass all the way through it. How fast do

they move together after impact?

v

7. 035 kg

v = 3.48 m/s

would be a frictional force on the wood in addition to that of the bullet,

and the system would have to include the table as well.

The proof is based on Newtons 3rd Law. Whenever two objects collide

(or exert forces on each other from a distance), the forces involved are an

action-reaction pair, equal in strength, opposite in direction. This means

the net force on the system (the two objects together) is zero, since these

forces cancel out.

F

F

M m

force on M due to m

force on m due to M

Since the force applied and the contact time is the same for each mass,

they each undergo the same change in momentum, but in opposite

directions. The result is that even though the momenta of the individual

objects changes, p for the system is zero. The momentum that one

mass gains, the other loses. Hence, the momentum of the system before

equals the momentum of the system after.

in the absence of external forces!

In the first two sample problems, we dealt with a frictionless

surface. We couldnt simply conserve momentum if friction had

been present because, as the proof on the last slide shows, there

would be another force (friction) in addition to the contact forces.

Friction wouldnt cancel out, and it would be a net force on the

system.

The only way to conserve momentum with an external force like

friction is to make it internal by including the tabletop, floor, or the

entire Earth as part of the system. For example, if a rubber ball hits a

brick wall, p for the ball is not conserved, neither is p for the ballwall system, since the wall is connected to the ground and subject to

force by it. However, p for the ball-Earth system is conserved!

Sample Problem 3

An apple is originally at rest and then dropped. After falling a short

time, its moving pretty fast, say at a speed V. Obviously, momentum

is not conserved for the apple, since it didnt have any at first. How can

this be?

answer: Gravity is an external force on the

apple

V

m

F

v

Earth

M

conserved. To make gravity internal, we

must define a system that includes the

other object responsible for the

gravitational force--Earth. The net force

on the apple-Earth system is zero, and

momentum is conserved for it. During the

fall the Earth attains a very small speed v.

So, by conservation of momentum:

mV = M v

Sample Problem 4

A crate of raspberry donut filling collides with a tub of lime Kool Aid

on a frictionless surface. Which way on how fast does the Kool Aid

rebound?

answer: Lets draw v to the right in the after picture.

v = -3.1 m/s

right, but thats OK as long as we interpret our answer correctly.

After the collision the lime Kool Aid is moving 3.1 m/s to the left.

before

3 kg

after

10 m/s

4.5 m/s

3 kg

6 m/s

15 kg

15 kg

To handle a collision in 2-D, we conserve momentum in each

dimension separately.

Choosing down & right as positive:

m2

m1

v1

2 v

2

m1

va

m2

vb

before:

px = m1 v1 cos1 - m2 v2 cos2

py = m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin2

after:

px = -m1 va cosa + m2 vb cos b

py = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin 2 = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

B

E m1

1

F

O

p1

R

E

A

F

T

E

R

p1

m2

p before

p2

p2

m1

a

pa

m2

pa

p after

b

pb

pb

their respective velocity vectors. Note p1 + p 2 = p a + p b and

p before = p after as conservation of momentum demands.

Exploding Bomb

A

e

c

m

Acme

after

before

every which way, each piece with a different mass and speed. The

momentum vectors are shown in the after picture.

Exploding Bomb

(cont.)

explosion, it must be zero after it as well. Each piece does

have momentum, but the total momentum of the exploded

bomb must be zero afterwards. This means that it must be

possible to place the momentum vectors tip to tail and form a

closed polygon, which means the vector sum is zero.

the bomb were not zero,

these vectors would add up

to the original momentum

vector.

152 g

before

40

0.3 kg

5 m/s

34 m/s

mango that was just passing by

minding its own business. Which

way and how fast do they move off

together?

152 (34) sin 40 = 452 v sin

152 (34) cos 40 - 300 (5) = 452 v cos

after

452 g

= 53.4908

Substituting into either of the first two

equations :

v = 9.14 m/s

Alternate Solution

40

5168

The black vector is the total momentum

before the collision. Because of

conservation of momentum, it is also the

total momentum after the collisions. We

can use trig to find its magnitude and

direction.

40

1500

p = 4132.9736 g m/s

Dividing by total mass : v = (4132.9736 g m/s) / (452 g) = 9.14 m/s

Law of Sines :

sin

1500

sin 40

=

4132.9736

= 13.4908

Note that the alternate method gave us the exact

same solution.

This method can only be used when two objects

collide and stick, or when one object breaks into

two. Otherwise, wed be dealing with a polygon

with more sides than a triangle.

In using the Law of Sines (last step), the angle

involved () is the angle inside the triangle. A little

geometry gives us the angle with respect to the

horizontal.

Angular Momentum

Angular momentum depends on linear momentum and the distance

from a particular point. It is a vector quantity with symbol L. If r

and v are then the magnitude of angular momentum w/ resp. to

point Q is given by L = r p = m v r. In this case L points out of the

page. If the mass were moving in the opposite direction, L would

point into the page.

The SI unit for angular momentum

is the kg m2 / s. (It has no special

v name.) Angular momentum is a

conserved quantity. A torque is

needed to change L, just a force is

r

m needed to change p. Anything

spinning has angular has angular

Q

momentum. The more it has, the

harder it is to stop it from spinning.

If r and v are not then the angle between these two vectors must

be taken into account. The general definition of angular momentum is

given by a vector cross product:

L=rp

This formula works regardless of the angle. As you know from our

study of cross products, the magnitude of the angular momentum

of m relative to point Q is: L = r p sin = m v r. In this case, by

the right-hand rule, L points out of the page. If the mass were

moving in the opposite direction, L would point into the page.

v

r

Q

Moment of Inertia

Any moving body has inertia. (It wants to keep moving at constant

v.) The more inertia a body has, the harder it is to change its linear

motion. Rotating bodies possess a rotational inertial called the

moment of inertial, I. The more rotational inertia a body has, the

harder it is change its rotation. For a single point-like mass w/ respect

to a given point Q, I = m r 2. For a system, I = the sum of each mass

times its respective distance from the

m

point of interest.

r

m1

I = mr

I = mi ri 2

= m1 r12 + m2 r22

m2

r1

r2

Q

Two merry-go-rounds have the same mass and are spinning with the

same angular velocity. One is solid wood (a disc), and the other is a

metal ring. Which has a bigger moment of inertia relative to its

center of mass?

r

radii are the same, the ring has a greater moment of inertia. This is

because more of its mass is farther from the axis of rotation. Since I

is bigger for the ring, it would more difficult to increase or decrease its

angular speed.

Angular Acceleration

As you know, acceleration is when an object speeds up, slows down,

or changes directions. Angular acceleration occurs when a spinning

object spins faster or slower. Its symbol is , and its defined as:

= /t

Note how this is very similar to a = v / t for linear acceleration.

Ex: If a wind turbine spinning at 21 rpm speeds up to 30 rpm over

10 s due to a gust of wind, its average angular acceleration is

9 rpm / 10 s. This means every second its spinning 9 revolutions per

minute faster than the second before. Lets convert the units:

9 rpm

9 rev

9 rev / min

9 (2 rad)

2

=

=

=

0.094

rad

/

s

=

10 s

min 10 s

10 s

(60 s) 10 s

Since a radian is really dimensionless (a length divided by a length),

the SI unit for angular acceleration is the per second squared (s -2).

Newtons 2nd Law, as you know, is Fnet = m a

The 2nd Law has a rotational analog:

net = I

turning force (a torque) is required for a body to undergo

angular acceleration.

The bigger a bodys mass, the more force is required to

accelerate it. Similarly, the bigger a bodys rotational inertia,

the more torque is required to accelerate it angularly.

Both m and I are measures of a bodys inertia

(resistance to change in motion).

If a net force acts on an object, it must accelerate, which means its

momentum must change. Similarly, if a net torque acts on a body, it

undergoes angular acceleration, which means its angular momentum

changes. Recall, angular momentums magnitude is given by

L = mvr

r

v

m

must change, which changes angular momentum.

proof:

net = r Fnet = r m a

= r m v / t = L / t

So net torque is the rate of change of angular momentum, just as net

force is the rate of change of linear momentum. continued on next slide

(cont.)

one rotational. From the formula v = r , we get

L = m v r = m r (r ) = m r 2 = I

This is very much like p = m v, and this is one reason I is

defined the way it is.

In terms of magnitudes, linear momentum is inertia times

speed, and angular momentum is rotational inertia times

angular speed.

L = I

p = mv

Why does a spinning ice skater speed up when she pulls her arms in?

Suppose Mr. Stickman is sitting on a stool that swivels holding a pair of

dumbbells. His axis of rotation is vertical. With the weights far from

that axis, his moment of inertia is large. When he pulls his arms in as

hes spinning, the weights are closer to

the axis, so his moment of inertia gets

much smaller. Since L = I and L is

conserved, the product of I and is a

constant. So, when he pulls his arms in,

I goes down, goes up, and he starts

spinning much faster.

I = L = I

Linear Momentum, p

Angular Momentum, L

moving in a straight line.

rotating.

Parallel to v.

times speed.

times angular speed.

The greater the mass, the greater The greater the moment of

inertia, the greater the torque

the force needed to change

needed to change angular

momentum.

momentum.

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