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4 Homeostasis
and Cells

Cells have the same basic composition, and

the same kinds of organelles, but not all

living things are the same
Cells are ___________________ and associate

with other cells in special ways

Unicellular Organisms

relatively constant
internal physical and
chemical conditions
organisms are living

Types of Unicellular
Protozoa (picture on previous slide)
Algae have chloroplasts, found in

Yeast (a unicellular fungi) break down

Bacteria highly adaptive and can live
almost anywhere
Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes,

though unicellular, ______ __________

_______ _____________ ________________.

Multi-cellular Organisms
Cells have a certain job in the body and are

specialized for their task

Analogy: cells work together like members of a
baseball team-are interdependent
Members of a baseball team have different jobs

coach, catcher, pitcher, fielders, trainers

Need to communicate effectively

So do cells!

The cells of multicellular organisms

become specialized for particular tasks
and communicate with one another to
maintain homeostasis.

Fig 7-22 Human

trachea epithelial cells Fig 7-23 Pollen grains from

pine tree

Levels of Organization
The specialized cells of multicellular organisms are

organized into tissues, then into organs, and finally

into organ systems.

Levels of Organization
A ______________ is a group of similar cells that

performs a particular function.

Levels of Organization
To perform complicated tasks, many groups of tissues

work together as an _____________.

Each type of tissue performs an essential task to help

the organ function.

In most cases, an organ completes a series of
specialized tasks.

Levels of Organization
A group of organs that work together to perform a
specific function is called an ________________.

For example, the stomach, pancreas, and

intestines work together as the digestive system.

Levels of Organization
The organization of the bodys cells into tissues,

organs, and organ systems creates a division of labor

among those cells that allows the organism to
maintain homeostasis.

Levels of Organization: review

Cells make
Tissues, which make
Organs, which make
Organ systems,

which make

Cellular Communication
Cells are specialized,

but interdependent
Cells MUST

Some cells form a

connection to another
cell, called cellular

Signals pass through junctions, but

only if they have the right

_____________ (like a receiver) =
specific protein that has specific
shape that molds to a specific
molecular messenger
Ex: junctions in the heart electrical signals

pass through junctions to make heart

contract and pump blood

In your Notes, answer

1. What is homeostasis?

2. What do unicellular organisms do to

maintain homeostasis?

3. What is cellular
Cellular specialization describes how, in

multicellular organisms, groups of cells

play different, specific roles.
Ex: Cilia on trachea cells

4. What are 2 things that help cells

communicate and maintain