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# EEE 121

Circuit Theory 1
Chapter 4
CAPACITORS AND
INDUCTORS
LECTURER : NURAIZA BINTI ISMAIL

CONTENTS Chapter 4
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CAPACITORS
3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
4. SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS
5. INDUCTORS
6. ENERGY IN INDUCTORS
7. SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS
8. CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP FOR R, L, C

1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter introduce two important passive

## linear circuit elements: the capacitor and the

inductor.
Unlike resistors, which dissipate energy,

## capacitors and inductors do not dissipate but

store energy.
For this reason, capacitors and inductors are

## called storage elements.

2. CAPACITORS
A capacitor is a passive element designed to

## Figure: A capacitor with

applied voltage, v

## A capacitor consists of two conducting plates

separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

2. CAPACITORS
Capacitance C is the ratio of the charge, q on one

## plate of a capacitor to the voltage difference, v

between the two plates, measured in farads (F).

qC v

and

A
C
d

Where:
is the permittivity of the dielectric material between the
plates.
A is the surface area of each plate.
d is the distance between the plates.
Unit: F, pF (1012), nF (109), and F (106)

2. CAPACITORS
If i is flowing into the +ve

terminal of C
Charging
Discharging

i is +ve
i is ve

## The current-voltage relationship of capacitor

according to above convention is :

dv
iC
dt

and

1
v
C

i d t v(t )
t0

2. CAPACITORS
Example 1
The current through a 100-F capacitor is

## i(t) = 50 sin(120 t) mA.

Calculate the voltage across it at t =1 ms and t = 5 ms. Take
v(0) =0.

v(1ms) = 93.14mV
v(5ms) = 1.7361V

2. CAPACITORS
Example 2
An initially uncharged 1-mF capacitor has the current
shown below across it. Calculate the voltage across it
at t = 2 ms and t = 5 ms.

v(2ms) = 100
mV
v(5ms) = 500

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
The energy, w, stored in the capacitor is:

1 2
w Cv
2
The unit is Joule [J]
A capacitor is
an open circuit to dc (dv/dt = 0).
its voltage cannot change abruptly.

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
Example 3
What is the voltage across a 3-F capacitor if the
charge
on one plate is 0.12 mC. How much energy is stored?

v = 40 V
w = 2.4 mJ

CAPACITORS
The

## equivalent capacitance of N seriesconnected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum

of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances.

1
1
1
1

...
C eq C1 C 2
CN

CAPACITORS
The

## equivalent capacitance of N parallelconnected capacitors is the sum of the

individual capacitances.

C eq C1 C 2 ... C N

## 4. SERIES AND PARALLEL

CAPACITORS
Example 4
Find the equivalent capacitance seen at the
terminals of the circuit in the circuit shown below:

40F

## 4. SERIES AND PARALLEL

CAPACITORS
Example 5
Find the voltage across each of the capacitors in
the circuit shown below:

v1 = 30V,

v2 = 30V,

v3 = 10V,

v4 = 20V

5. INDUCTORS
An inductor is a passive element designed

to

## An inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

5. INDUCTORS
Inductance is the property whereby an inductor

## exhibits opposition to the change of current

flowing through it, measured in henrys (H).

di
vL
dt

N A
L
l
2

where

## Where N = number of turns

L = length of the coil
A = cross-sectional area
= permeability of the core

## The unit of inductors is Henry (H), mH (103) and H

(106).

5. INDUCTORS
The current-voltage relationship of an

inductor:

1 t
i v (t ) d t i (t 0 )
L t0
and

di
vL
dt
An inductor acts like a short circuit to dc (di/dt = 0)
and its current cannot change abruptly.

6. ENERGY IN INDUCTORS
The power stored by an inductor is:

1
w L i2
2

6. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
Example 6
The terminal voltage of a 2-H inductor
is
v = 10(1 - t) V
Find the current flowing through it at t
= 4 s and the energy stored in it within
t = s.
Assume i(0) = 2 A.
320J

i(4s) = -18V,

w(4s) =

6. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
Example 7
Determine vc, iL, and the energy stored in the
capacitor and inductor in the circuit of circuit shown
below under dc conditions.

iL = 3A, vC = 3V,

wL = 1.125J, wC = 9J

## 7. SERIES AND PARALLEL

INDUCTORS
The

equivalent
inductance
connected inductors is the
individual inductances.

of
sum

seriesof the

Leq L1 L2 ... LN

## 7. SERIES AND PARALLEL

INDUCTORS
The equivalent capacitance of parallel inductors is the

inductances.

1
1
1
1

...
Leq L1 L2
LN

## 7. SERIES AND PARALLEL

INDUCTORS
Example 8
Calculate the equivalent inductance for the
inductive ladder network in the circuit shown
below:

25mH

Leq =

## 7. SERIES AND PARALLEL

INDUCTORS
10t
i2 (0) 1 mA
i (t ) 4(2 eIf
)mA.
For the circuit below,
t) ;
i1 (t ), i2 (t )
find: (a) i1 (0); (b) v(t ) , v1 (t ), v2 ((c)

## 8. CURRENT AND VOLTAGE

RELATIONSHIP FOR R, L, C