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Circuit Theory 1

Chapter 4

CAPACITORS AND

INDUCTORS

LECTURER : NURAIZA BINTI ISMAIL

CONTENTS Chapter 4

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CAPACITORS

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS

4. SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS

5. INDUCTORS

6. ENERGY IN INDUCTORS

7. SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS

8. CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP FOR R, L, C

1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter introduce two important passive

inductor.

Unlike resistors, which dissipate energy,

store energy.

For this reason, capacitors and inductors are

2. CAPACITORS

A capacitor is a passive element designed to

applied voltage, v

separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

2. CAPACITORS

Capacitance C is the ratio of the charge, q on one

between the two plates, measured in farads (F).

qC v

and

A

C

d

Where:

is the permittivity of the dielectric material between the

plates.

A is the surface area of each plate.

d is the distance between the plates.

Unit: F, pF (1012), nF (109), and F (106)

2. CAPACITORS

If i is flowing into the +ve

terminal of C

Charging

Discharging

i is +ve

i is ve

according to above convention is :

dv

iC

dt

and

1

v

C

i d t v(t )

t0

2. CAPACITORS

Example 1

The current through a 100-F capacitor is

Calculate the voltage across it at t =1 ms and t = 5 ms. Take

v(0) =0.

Answer:

v(1ms) = 93.14mV

v(5ms) = 1.7361V

2. CAPACITORS

Example 2

An initially uncharged 1-mF capacitor has the current

shown below across it. Calculate the voltage across it

at t = 2 ms and t = 5 ms.

Answer:

v(2ms) = 100

mV

v(5ms) = 500

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS

The energy, w, stored in the capacitor is:

1 2

w Cv

2

The unit is Joule [J]

A capacitor is

an open circuit to dc (dv/dt = 0).

its voltage cannot change abruptly.

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS

Example 3

What is the voltage across a 3-F capacitor if the

charge

on one plate is 0.12 mC. How much energy is stored?

Answer:

v = 40 V

w = 2.4 mJ

CAPACITORS

The

of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances.

1

1

1

1

...

C eq C1 C 2

CN

CAPACITORS

The

individual capacitances.

C eq C1 C 2 ... C N

CAPACITORS

Example 4

Find the equivalent capacitance seen at the

terminals of the circuit in the circuit shown below:

Answer: Ceq =

40F

CAPACITORS

Example 5

Find the voltage across each of the capacitors in

the circuit shown below:

Answer:

v1 = 30V,

v2 = 30V,

v3 = 10V,

v4 = 20V

5. INDUCTORS

An inductor is a passive element designed

to

5. INDUCTORS

Inductance is the property whereby an inductor

flowing through it, measured in henrys (H).

di

vL

dt

N A

L

l

2

where

L = length of the coil

A = cross-sectional area

= permeability of the core

(106).

5. INDUCTORS

The current-voltage relationship of an

inductor:

1 t

i v (t ) d t i (t 0 )

L t0

and

di

vL

dt

An inductor acts like a short circuit to dc (di/dt = 0)

and its current cannot change abruptly.

6. ENERGY IN INDUCTORS

The power stored by an inductor is:

1

w L i2

2

6. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS

Example 6

The terminal voltage of a 2-H inductor

is

v = 10(1 - t) V

Find the current flowing through it at t

= 4 s and the energy stored in it within

t = s.

Assume i(0) = 2 A.

Answer:

320J

i(4s) = -18V,

w(4s) =

6. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS

Example 7

Determine vc, iL, and the energy stored in the

capacitor and inductor in the circuit of circuit shown

below under dc conditions.

Answer:

iL = 3A, vC = 3V,

wL = 1.125J, wC = 9J

INDUCTORS

The

equivalent

inductance

connected inductors is the

individual inductances.

of

sum

seriesof the

Leq L1 L2 ... LN

INDUCTORS

The equivalent capacitance of parallel inductors is the

inductances.

1

1

1

1

...

Leq L1 L2

LN

INDUCTORS

Example 8

Calculate the equivalent inductance for the

inductive ladder network in the circuit shown

below:

Answer:

25mH

Leq =

INDUCTORS

10t

i2 (0) 1 mA

i (t ) 4(2 eIf

)mA.

For the circuit below,

t) ;

i1 (t ), i2 (t )

find: (a) i1 (0); (b) v(t ) , v1 (t ), v2 ((c)

RELATIONSHIP FOR R, L, C

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