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EEE 121

Circuit Theory 1
Chapter 4
CAPACITORS AND
INDUCTORS
LECTURER : NURAIZA BINTI ISMAIL

CONTENTS Chapter 4
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CAPACITORS
3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
4. SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS
5. INDUCTORS
6. ENERGY IN INDUCTORS
7. SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS
8. CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP FOR R, L, C

1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter introduce two important passive

linear circuit elements: the capacitor and the


inductor.
Unlike resistors, which dissipate energy,

capacitors and inductors do not dissipate but


store energy.
For this reason, capacitors and inductors are

called storage elements.

2. CAPACITORS
A capacitor is a passive element designed to

store energy in its electric field.

Figure: A capacitor with


applied voltage, v

Figure: A typical capacitor

A capacitor consists of two conducting plates


separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

2. CAPACITORS
Capacitance C is the ratio of the charge, q on one

plate of a capacitor to the voltage difference, v


between the two plates, measured in farads (F).

qC v

and

A
C
d

Where:
is the permittivity of the dielectric material between the
plates.
A is the surface area of each plate.
d is the distance between the plates.
Unit: F, pF (1012), nF (109), and F (106)

2. CAPACITORS
If i is flowing into the +ve

terminal of C
Charging
Discharging

i is +ve
i is ve

The current-voltage relationship of capacitor


according to above convention is :

dv
iC
dt

and

1
v
C

i d t v(t )
t0

2. CAPACITORS
Example 1
The current through a 100-F capacitor is

i(t) = 50 sin(120 t) mA.


Calculate the voltage across it at t =1 ms and t = 5 ms. Take
v(0) =0.

Answer:
v(1ms) = 93.14mV
v(5ms) = 1.7361V

2. CAPACITORS
Example 2
An initially uncharged 1-mF capacitor has the current
shown below across it. Calculate the voltage across it
at t = 2 ms and t = 5 ms.

Answer:
v(2ms) = 100
mV
v(5ms) = 500

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
The energy, w, stored in the capacitor is:

1 2
w Cv
2
The unit is Joule [J]
A capacitor is
an open circuit to dc (dv/dt = 0).
its voltage cannot change abruptly.

3. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
Example 3
What is the voltage across a 3-F capacitor if the
charge
on one plate is 0.12 mC. How much energy is stored?

Answer:
v = 40 V
w = 2.4 mJ

4. SERIES AND PARALLEL


CAPACITORS
The

equivalent capacitance of N seriesconnected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum


of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances.

1
1
1
1

...
C eq C1 C 2
CN

4. SERIES AND PARALLEL


CAPACITORS
The

equivalent capacitance of N parallelconnected capacitors is the sum of the


individual capacitances.

C eq C1 C 2 ... C N

4. SERIES AND PARALLEL


CAPACITORS
Example 4
Find the equivalent capacitance seen at the
terminals of the circuit in the circuit shown below:

Answer: Ceq =
40F

4. SERIES AND PARALLEL


CAPACITORS
Example 5
Find the voltage across each of the capacitors in
the circuit shown below:

Answer:

v1 = 30V,

v2 = 30V,

v3 = 10V,

v4 = 20V

5. INDUCTORS
An inductor is a passive element designed

to

store energy in its magnetic field.

Figure: Typical form of an inductor

An inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

5. INDUCTORS
Inductance is the property whereby an inductor

exhibits opposition to the change of current


flowing through it, measured in henrys (H).

di
vL
dt

N A
L
l
2

where

Where N = number of turns


L = length of the coil
A = cross-sectional area
= permeability of the core

The unit of inductors is Henry (H), mH (103) and H


(106).

5. INDUCTORS
The current-voltage relationship of an

inductor:

1 t
i v (t ) d t i (t 0 )
L t0
and

di
vL
dt
An inductor acts like a short circuit to dc (di/dt = 0)
and its current cannot change abruptly.

6. ENERGY IN INDUCTORS
The power stored by an inductor is:

1
w L i2
2

6. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
Example 6
The terminal voltage of a 2-H inductor
is
v = 10(1 - t) V
Find the current flowing through it at t
= 4 s and the energy stored in it within
t = s.
Assume i(0) = 2 A.
Answer:
320J

i(4s) = -18V,

w(4s) =

6. ENERGY IN CAPACITORS
Example 7
Determine vc, iL, and the energy stored in the
capacitor and inductor in the circuit of circuit shown
below under dc conditions.

Answer:

iL = 3A, vC = 3V,

wL = 1.125J, wC = 9J

7. SERIES AND PARALLEL


INDUCTORS
The

equivalent
inductance
connected inductors is the
individual inductances.

of
sum

seriesof the

Leq L1 L2 ... LN

7. SERIES AND PARALLEL


INDUCTORS
The equivalent capacitance of parallel inductors is the

reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual


inductances.

1
1
1
1

...
Leq L1 L2
LN

7. SERIES AND PARALLEL


INDUCTORS
Example 8
Calculate the equivalent inductance for the
inductive ladder network in the circuit shown
below:

Answer:
25mH

Leq =

7. SERIES AND PARALLEL


INDUCTORS
10t
i2 (0) 1 mA
i (t ) 4(2 eIf
)mA.
For the circuit below,
t) ;
i1 (t ), i2 (t )
find: (a) i1 (0); (b) v(t ) , v1 (t ), v2 ((c)

8. CURRENT AND VOLTAGE


RELATIONSHIP FOR R, L, C