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Design and Sizing

piping
Ben Youssef Mohamed Amine

Summary
Piping definition
what is Piping ?

Piping material
aspects and trends of corrosion in
oil and gas environment & material
selection strategy and
recommendations

Piping Design
Design recommandation & way of
sizing

Stress Analysis
Calculation method of flexibility

Pipping Defenition
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes
used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from
one location to another. The engineering
discipline of piping studies the efficient
transport of fluid.
Pipe is a Tubular item manufactured from
metal, steel, aluminum, copper ,plastic, wood,
fiberglass, glass,, and concrete etc. meant for
conveying Liquid, Gas or any thing that flows.
Generally, industrial piping engineering has
three major subfields: Piping material, Piping
design & Stress analysis

Manufacturing
The most known way of manufacturing pipes is
Spiral Welded Steel Pipe
The spiral welded steel pipe is manufactured
using hot rolled steel strip which is spiraled at
room temperature to be welded. Automatic
submerged arc welding is the most commonly
used method in the spiral tube production, and
the end products come with welding seam both
inside and outside.

Manufacturing
1. Raw Material Inspection
2. Uncoiling
3. Rough Leveling
4. End Cutting and Butt Welding
5. Precision Leveling
6. Delivering
7. Forming By Inner and Outer
Welding
8. Welding Slag Cleaning &
Overall Inspection
9. repair Welding, X-Ray
Inspection, Scanning, And ReInspection By Manual UT
10. Chamfering
11. Hydrostatic Testing
12. auto Length-Measuring and
Weighing

Piping Material
1. Material Selection Strategy and
recommendations:
Material selection shall be optimized, considering
investment and operational costs, such that
Life Cycle Costs (LCC) are minimized while
providing acceptable safety and reliability. The
following key factors apply to materials
selection:
Primary consideration shall be given to materials with good market
availability and documented fabrication and service performance
Operating conditions
The number of different material types shall be minimized considering
costs, interchangeability and availability of relevant spare parts
Design life

Piping Material
2. Overview of CO2 Corrosion Models for
Pipelines:
Corrosion models are set by petroleum companies
(e.g. Shell, Total), international
organizations,standardization bodies or research
bodies or universities.
Corrosion prediction models are basically based on
two different approaches
Mechanistic model: It is a model based on chemical and physical
approach of the phenomenon.
Empirical model: It is a model based on correlations with laboratory
and field data but would have some mechanistic equations as a
starting point.

Piping Material
Corrosion models:
De Waard Model
The model takes CO2 partial pressure,
temperature, pH, liquid velocity. The model
includes pH calculation only for pure
condensed water or condensed water
saturated with corrosion products, and
requires pH as a separate input when a
formation water chemistry is specified.
However the model has relatively little
sensitivity to variation in pH.

Piping Material
Norsok Model
empirical model that takes temperature,
total pressure, CO2 content, pH, wall shear
stress and glycol concentration as major
input. The model contains modules for
calculating pH and wall shear stress. Three
options for calculating pH are available. Wall
shear stress can be calculated from
production rates and pipe diameter.

Pipping Material
Key factors governing those models are:
Determination of PH
One of the most crucial aspects in corrosion
evaluation of oil and gas pipelines is to
obtain a realistic estimate of the actual pH in
the water phase.
Effect of Protective corrosion films
The effect of protective corrosion films on
the predicted corrosion rate varies
considerably between the models.

Piping Material
Connection with fluid flow modeling
CO2 corrosion is dependent on the flow
velocity, and the models have varying
degree of flow dependence. Most of the
models include a simplified fluid flow
calculation based on production rates and
pipe diameter, while some only take flow
velocity as input and require that liquid
flow velocity in the pipeline have been
calculated by a fluid flow model.

Piping Material
Effect of oil wetting
It is important to know whether water or oil
wets the steel surface since corrosion takes
place only when water is present at the
surface. If the water is transported as a waterin-oil emulsion or dispersion corrosion can be
substantially reduced.
Effect of H2S
When even small amounts of H2S are present,
the corrosion products are iron sulfide rather
than iron carbonate, since iron sulfide is much
less soluble and precipitates much more
rapidly than iron carbonate

Piping Material
Top-of-line corrosion
The discussion above concerns primarily corrosion
in the bulk water phase. The situation is quite
different for top-of-line corrosion when water
condenses out in the upper part of a pipeline.
The condensing water is unbuffered with low pH,
but can become rapidly saturated or
supersaturated with corrosion products, giving
rise to increased pH and possibility for iron
carbonate film formation. The top-of-line
corrosion rate then becomes dependent on the
water condensation rate and the amount of iron
which can be dissolved in the condensing water.

Piping Material

Piping Design
We are designing pipes that must be
manufactured after all, that's why we should
keep in mind 2 elementary key factors:
Cost
Feasibility(manufacturing, maintenance..)
However a good design requires a good sizing,
which leaves no other alternative other than
going throw the codes and standards of sizing:
ASME B31.3:Process Piping
ASME B31.1:Power Piping

Piping Design
ASME B31.1

bb

Uses higher allowable stress


values
Includes torsional stresses in
sustain case loading
Code allowable stress is based
upon a factor of safety of 4

ASME B31.3
Less allowable stress
Neglect torsional stresses
Factor of safety of 3
Plant life about 20 to 30 years

Plant life is about 40 years

Piping Design
B31.1 Power Piping: piping typically found in
electric power generating stations, in industrial
and
institutional plants, geothermal heating systems,
and central and district heating systems. B31.1 is
intended to be applied to:
Piping for steam, water, oil, gas, air and other
services
Metallic and nonmetallic piping
All pressures
All temperatures above -29C (-20F)

Piping Design
B31.3 Process Piping: piping typically found
in process facilities such as petroleum
refineries,chemical, pharmaceutical, textile,
paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants.
B31.3 is intended to be applied to:
Piping for all fluid services
Metallic and nonmetallic piping
All pressures
All temperatures

Stress Analysis
In order to guarantee the efficiency of piping
systems we need to go throw flexibility
calculation, in which two software are adopted :
CAESAR
ANSYS
Piping is submitted to a lot of actions such as :
Gravity effect,pressure
link action exercised by the Bracketing
solicitation of climatic origin
Vibrations
temperature variation effect

Stress Analysis
Certainly, all of this solicitation affect the piping
and result a damage; for example:
cracking in singular points
loss of sealing in joint
Structure deformation
Flexibility calculation is based on decomposing
the piping system into a number of elements and
defining each element extremity then
determining stresses and deformations by using
beam theory.
We shall find two types of stresses: one is due to
efforts and the other is due to
displacement(thermal expansion)