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Foundation Engineering

Underpinning of Foundations

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Introduction
Fields of
Application
General Steps For
Underpinning

Introduction
Underpinning is a term applied to
a group of methods used for
constructing new foundation under
existing structure.

Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Introduction
Fields of
Application
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Fields of Application

Underpinning
is
required
in
those
Introduction
cases,
Fields of
Application
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

When a building is constructed


below the foundation level of an
adjacent structure.
Industrial buildings which are
reconstructed to accommodate
heavier and larger machinery.

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Fields of Application

Some
other
cases
are,
Introduction
Fields of
Application
General Steps For
Underpinning

Construction of shallow subway lines


built in congested cities centers under
existing buildings.
Conservation of old buildings and
monumental structures.

Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Fields of Application

Still more,
Introduction
Fields of
Application
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning

A basement is built inside a building.


The settlement of a structure with
poor foundations is to be prevented.
Moving of structures from one side
to another represents another field of
application of these methods.

Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Underpinning of Foundations
`

General Steps For


Underpinning

Foundation Engineering

Following are the major steps that


Introduction
are to be followed in any type of
underpinning operation,
Fields of
Application

General Steps For


Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Feasibility.
Setting out.
Excavation & Shoring.
Concreting.
Backfilling.
7

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Feasibility

Before underpinning is
Introduction
commenced, an investigation
should be carried out by an
Fields of
Application
experienced and competent person.
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

It is to determine whether an
underpinning procedure will
achieve the object intended.

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Setting Out

The foundation portion that has to


Introduction
be underpinned is marked very
carefully at every 1m in case of
Fields of
Application
wall and less in case of column.
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Excavation and Shoring

The ground is excavated equally


Introduction
on both sides of footing up to the
required depth.
Fields of
Application

General Steps For


Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning

The portion to be underpinned is


shored against lateral movement
by means of preliminary supports.

Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

10

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Introduction
Fields of
Application
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

11

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Concreting

Place the concrete to a depth of 75mm


Introduction
below the existing footing and vibrate.
Fields of After not less than 24 hours curing, dry
Application
pack the void with 1:3 cement, sharp
sand mixed with a minimal amount of
General Steps For
Underpinning
water and well rammed into place.
Design of
Underpinning

Allow a further 24 hours before


Installation
excavating adjacent to a mass filled or
Methods
dry packed underpinned section.

Iftikhar

05-CE-62

12

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Introduction
Fields of
Application

Dry Pack
Method

General Steps For


Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Mass Fill
Method
13

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Back Filling

All excavations for working width


Introduction
not concreted should be backfilled
with clean stone, compacted in
Fields of
Application
max 200mm thick layers.
General Steps For
Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

14

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Design of Underpinning

Underpinning is usually applied to


Introduction
buildings whose cost is higher than
the cost of existing structure.
Fields of
Application

General Steps For


Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning

Exception to this rule are


structures which have service or
memorial.

Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

15

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Design of Underpinning

Analysis of underpinning starts


Introduction
with the evaluation of the loads
acting on the foundations.
Fields of
Application

General Steps For


Underpinning
Design of
Underpinning
Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

Bearing capacity of the existing


foundations is determined and the
strength of the structure to be
underpinned is assessed.
16

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Design of Underpinning

The underpinning should be about


Introduction
0.3 to 0.5-m deeper than the level
of the excavation, and it should
Fields of
Application
carry the load all the way to the
General Steps For
stratum in which the permissible
Underpinning
settlement is ensured.
Design of
Underpinning

Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

17

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Installation Methods

Underpinning is a tedious work


Introduction
which must be done very carefully
in order that the structure to be
Fields of
underpinned should not be
Application
damaged.
General Steps For Before underpinning is undertaken
Underpinning
the existing foundation should be
Design of
uncovered.
Underpinning
Underpinning is a slow and
Installation
expensive work, underpinning
Methods
generally takes several months.
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

18

Underpinning of Foundations
`

Foundation Engineering

Installation Methods

It is a highly expensive work and


Introduction
requires specialized kind of work
force so proper attention should be
Fields of
Application
given to it.
General Steps For Different installation methods are
Underpinning
given
in
the
coming
slides.
Design of
Underpinning

Installation
Methods
Iftikhar

05-CE-62

19

Foundation Engineering

Underpinning Methods

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning Methods
The numerous foundation methods
employed in underpinning, classified
according to the elements used in the
process,

Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods

All these methods produce, under


structure, a support to which the load is
transferred.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Pit Piers

Underpinning
For underpinning of wall footing.
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Using access pits (B<2m)


alongside the wall to be
underpinned.
Afer excavating the pit 1.8m deep
under the bottom of footing it is
cut in horizontally under the wall
like lateral adit.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering
Wedge
7-10 cm

Underpinning
Methods

Dry

Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods

packing

Preliminary Supports

Underpinning of
Columns
Access
Pit

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

About 2m

Lateral Adits

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Pit Piers

Underpinning
Masonry piers of hard burnt bricks
Methods
or precast concrete blocks are built
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

up using cement mortar and 5mm


thin joint.
The spacing of the successive pits
is kept greater than 4m to ensure
ground of sufficient bearing
capacity to carry the load.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Pit Piers

Underpinning
Dry packing (7-10cm thick) is
Methods
used to transfer the load so that the
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

building does not settle.


It consists of thoroughly rammed
stiff cement mortor, hard wooden
pieces and rammed roof tiles.
If the walls are not strong enough
preliminary supports are installed
before starting underpinning.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering
Wedge
7-10 cm

Underpinning
Methods

Dry

Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods

packing

Preliminary Supports

Underpinning of
Columns
Access
Pit

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

About 2m

Lateral Adits

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Jacked Piles

Underpinning
Jacked piles are used for
Methods
underpinning in water bearing
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

soils.
By this technique a spread footing
is converted into pile footing.
Its reliability is increased due to the
fact that precise control can be
exercised while load is being taken
up by the piles.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Root Piles

Underpinning They are used in the conditions


when the spaces for underpinning
Methods

and headroom is restricted.

Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Thought of less bearing


capacity(150-600kN) it may prove
economical.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Root Piles

Underpinning
They can be drilled from both
Methods
sides of walls forming an A-frame.
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

When the wall is accessible from


one side they may be installed in a
fan-like manner.
They are also used for
underpinning bridge piers and
retaining walls.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Root Piles

Underpinning
Their key advantage lies in the fact
Methods
that they are installed just from the
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

ground level requiring no access


pits and is not affected by water
bearing soil.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods

Sidewalk Level

Basement Floor
Level

Underpinning of
Columns
High Bearing Capacity Soil

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods

Bridge Pier

Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns
High Bearing
Capacity Soil
Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Retaining Wall

Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Rock or Hard Strata

Ground Level

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Special Methods
Grouting
Used for building situated above
subway lines.
Grouted arch is provided so as to
prevent the settlement.
It may also be used in place of pit piers
in order to utilize full advantage of
large area.
However, it is rarely used due to is
instability in some cases and because
of economic reasons.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Special Methods
Ground Freezing
It is even less common.
It may be used as temporary work
with later permanent solution.

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning of Columns

Underpinning Columns bearing on square or


Methods
rectangular footing can be underpinned
by using pit piers.
Pit Piers Preliminary supports are needed in this
case.
Jacked Piles
Root Piles Driven piles are not recommended due
to the detrimental effects of vibration on
Special Methods
the structure.
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Underpinning
Methods
Pit Piers
Jacked Piles
Root Piles
Special Methods
Underpinning of
Columns

Akash Shahzad Khan

05-CE-42

Foundation Engineering

Lateral Underpinning

05-CE-44 Akmal

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral Underpinning

Lateral
Underpinning In lateral underpinning a wall is used
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls

to
prevent
the
subsoil
from
spreading laterally, thus eliminating
the settlement.

Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

47

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Types of Lateral
Underpinning

Lateral The following four kinds of walls are


used in lateral underpinning:
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

Soldier pile walls.


Sheet pile walls.
Pier walls.
Diaphragm walls.

48

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Soldier Pile Walls

Lateral These walls are suitable for dry


dense soils.
Underpinning
Example is the installation of Soldier
pile wall around the perimeter of old
Soldier Pile Walls
building for the purpose of enclosing
Sheet Pile Walls
the land cofferdam.
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls The soldier piles are driven in the
ground and tied back by in-situ
anchoring.

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

49

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Soldier Pile Walls

Lateral The effect of vibration caused by


driving is negligible, Process is
Underpinning
however noisy.

Soldier Pile Walls


The tie-back walls do not prevent the
Sheet Pile Walls
movement of a wall for a long
Pier Walls
period, especially when applied in
clay soils.
Diaphragm Walls
Soldier piles cannot be used in water
bearing soils.
Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

50

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

51

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

52

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

53

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Sheet Pile Walls

Lateral These can be used in water bearing


soils.
Underpinning
Its installation is noisy process. That
Soldier Pile Walls
is why these are seldom used in city
Sheet Pile Walls
centers.
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls They only appear in the underpinning
of industrial buildings.

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

54

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

55

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

56

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

57

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

58

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

59

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Pier Walls

Lateral They are used in dry soils where pit


piers constructed under the footings
Underpinning
can be replaced by drilled walls
installed along the footings.

Soldier Pile Walls


They behave better statically than
Sheet Pile Walls
the diaphragm walls, as they ensure
a short undercut length of footing to
Pier Walls
be underpinned.
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

60

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Pier Walls

Lateral Pier
walls
are
economically
competitive with diaphragm walls.
Underpinning
They are installed by means
Soldier Pile Walls
drilling which ensures less noise.
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls

of

Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

61

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

62

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

63

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

64

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Diaphragm Walls

Lateral In water bearing soils, these walls


are economically acceptable if they
Underpinning
double for permanent walls as well
as serving in underpinning.

Soldier Pile Walls


Sheet Pile Walls These are used when diaphragm
sections are longer than 6 m & loads
Pier Walls
applied by footings of adjacent
Diaphragm Walls
footings are more than 300 kN & soil
is not too permeable.

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

65

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Diaphragm Walls

Lateral Both diaphragm & drilled pier walls


have an advantage over steel
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls

sheeting & soldier pile walls that they


are appreciably stiffer & their
deflection is therefore small.

Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

66

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

67

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

68

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

69

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

70

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

71

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

72

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

73

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

74

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

75

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

76

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

77

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Lateral
Underpinning
Soldier Pile Walls
Sheet Pile Walls
Pier Walls
Diaphragm Walls

Ch. Akmal

05-CE-44

78

Foundation Engineering

Bridging Supports

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Bridging Supports

Bridging
Bridging supports are structures
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports

used for the underpinning of


buildings which are situated above
the cuts of shallow sub way lines.
They consist of bridging beams
supported by pit piers.

Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

80

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Necessity of Bridging

Bridging
The bridging supports are
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

frequently needed in cities having


streets which are not wide enough
to accommodate the tubes or the
stations.
The structures lying above the
curved tracks which cannot follow
the contour of the street corners
must also bear on bridging
supports.
81

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Installation Of Supports

Bridging The installation of Bridging supports


Supports
involve difficult and expensive
operations of eccentric underpinning
which is carried out in several stages
Necessity of
and thus considerably impedes the
Bridging
progress of work.
Installation of
Supports Due to this costly undertaking
sometimes
the
grade
line
brought
down
Geological
to a depth at which no underpinning
Conditions
was required.
Difficulties
Encountered

Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

82

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Geological Conditions

Bridging
Underpinning is a process to
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions

enhance the properties of


foundations. Sometimes existing
foundations as discussed in
previous slides.
Geological conditions are
favorable in hard strata.

Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

83

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Difficulties Encountered

Bridging The difficulties encountered in the


Supports
underpinning of buildings situated above
the subway lines lie in the fact that the
underpinning construction cannot be
Necessity of
placed under walls where it interfere with
Bridging
the track.
Installation of
Supports The bridging beams which must be
placed
beneath
the
underpinned
footings,
Geological
usually bear on pit piers located outside
Conditions
the tunnel.
Difficulties
Encountered

Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

84

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Difficulties Encountered

Bridging
The transfer of the footing load is
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports

accomplished by prestressing.
Simple or cantilever steel beams
are preferred in the construction of
bridging supports.

Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

85

Foundation Engineering

Enlarging Of Foundation

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of foundation

Bridging Enlarging of foundation is employed


Supports
whenever the groundwater level is close
to footing and the pit pier and jacking
methods are hardly to apply.
Necessity of
Bridging Enlarging by continuous footing of
Installation of
Supports

concrete is feasible when foundation


soil has high bearing capacity.

Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

87

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of foundation

Bridging When soil has low bearing capacity,


Supports
enlarging must be supported by piles.
Enlarging of square or rectangular
footings can be effected by means of
Necessity of
buttressed collars.
Bridging
Installation of The method of underpinning by means
Supports
of root piles make possible to install
root piles water bearing soils down to
Geological
Conditions
firm supporting stratum.
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

88

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of Continuous Footing

Bridging It is carried out in two stages:


Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

One side of footing is enlarged first ,the


other side afterwards without recourse to
preliminary supports.
The first step of enlarging operation
consists of inserting needle beams in holes
drilled through the wall.
The needle beams which are I-sections are
prestressed against the walls by means of a
dry pack and against the enlargements by
means of wedges.
89

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of Continuous Footing

Bridging
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

90

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of Continuous Footing

Bridging
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

91

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of Continuous Footing

Bridging After the prestressing they are encased


Supports
in concrete.
The wedges must produce a deflection
of needle beams corresponding to the
Necessity of
load P applied by wall.
Bridging
Installation of The needle beams transmit the load to
Supports
enlargements,where reaction A1 and A2
acts.
Geological
Conditions

Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

92

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Enlarging of Continuous Footing

Bridging
The existing footing is thus
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions

relieved from load and the width


of footing bottom which transmit
the load is only equal to B1+B2.
The enlargements are cantilevered
below the old footing and this
arrangement reduces the overall
width of enlarged footing.

Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

93

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Square & Rectangular Footing

Bridging
This type of footing can be
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions

enlarged by means of encasing


buttresses.
This method has successfully been
applied to underpinning of
building columns, towers,
underscoured bridge piers etc

Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

94

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Square & Rectangular Footing

Bridging
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

95

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Square & Rectangular Footing

Bridging
It employs buttress collars
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

consrtucted around the structure.


Since the collars can be cast to a
considerable height,the area of
contact between the old and new
masonry or concrete is sufficient
to transmit the load to
enlargement,provided that chases
are cut in old face.
96

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Bridging
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions

Square & Rectangular Footing


The roughened face should be
clean,for surface dirt is capable of
breaking the bond.
The concrete collar cast around the
footing shrinks the ensuing
pressure compresses the footing.
The collars must be heavily
reinforced.

Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

97

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Bridging
Supports

Necessity of
Bridging
Installation of
Supports
Geological
Conditions
Difficulties
Encountered
Faheem Rasool

05-CE-52

98

Foundation Engineering

Moving Of Structures

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Operational Steps

Structures can essentially be moved


Moving of
vertically, horizontally, or in both
Structures
directions. The operation consists of
the following steps,
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

Underpinning of the walls and columns


above the foundation.
Cutting the structure across in a horizontal
plane to separate it from the footings.
transferring the load to a vehicle and
moving.

100

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Vertical & Horizontal Moving

Moving of
Vertical moving is necessary in
Structures

those cases when the clearance of


a flyover is required to be raised.

Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

Horizontal moving of structures is


sometimes used when streets are to
be widened or industrial buildings
relocated.
101

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Vertical & Horizontal Moving

Moving of
Railways bridges, blast furnaces
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures

etc, erected alongside old operating


units are moved horizontally when a
speedy replacement of the old unit
by a new one is essential.
Moving is also applied to landmarks
and monuments lying.

Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

102

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Transfer of Weight

Moving of
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

103

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Elevation & Plan of Track

Moving of
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

104

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Procedure of Moving Structures

Moving of
The weight of the structure is
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

transferred to steel stringers beams


encased in concrete in chases cut
in the masonry.

The stringer beams bear on needle


beams which enable the structure
to be move on rails ,usually with
gradient of 0.1% in the direction of
moving.
105

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Procedure of Moving Structures

Moving of
The rails are laid on strong ties
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

which are in turn supported by


longitudinal beams resting on a
high capacity bearing soil or piles.

A rigid track is advantageous for


small moving distances, while
rigid underpinning is preferred for
long distances.
106

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Procedure of Moving Structures

Moving of
Once the underpinning operation is
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving

completed ,the structure is


separated from the footing and
moved by means of horizontal
hydraulic jacks applying a force of
about 1 to 2% of its weight.

Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

107

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Moving of
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving

Precaution
The structure to be moved should
be heavily shored both outside and
inside and tied and braced to
prevent it from being damaged
during the moving operation.

Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

108

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Global Examples

Moving of
One of most spectacular examples
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures

of moving ever performed was


60m vertical rising of Abu Simbul
Temple.
The great temple weighed
2,500,000 KN and the small
temple 1,500,000 KN.

Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

109

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Global Examples

Moving of
California Palace of the Legion of
Structures

Honor, San Francisco, California

Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

110

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Global Examples

Moving of
The moving of Amada temple
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

weighing 8,000 KN in one piece


on an incline to a height of 65 m
and a distance of 2600m.

Eighteen Egyptian temples were


moved to save them form being
flooded along Nile above Aswan
Dam.
111

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Global Examples

Moving of
Another notable engineering
Structures
Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

achievement was the moving of


church of the Virgin Mary in
Czechoslovakia, realized in 646
hours of travel ,in october 1975.

The church was underpinned by a


grid of reinforced concrete beams.
112

Underpinning of Foundations
Foundation Engineering

Examples

Moving of
The working drawing of an
Structures

underpinning project will be


shown in next slides.

Operational Steps
Horizontal &
Vertical Moving
Procedure for
Moving Structures
Global Examples
Aleem Daar

05-CE-60

113

114

115