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# Iso-parametric Formulation

M . E. Engineering Design

Unit iii

Iso-parametric Formulation

## Natural Co-ordinate Systems Lagrangian Interpolation Polynomials Isoparametric

Elements Formulation Numerical Integration Gauss quadrature one-, two- and threedimensional triangular elements formulation rectangular elements Serendipity elements
Illustrative Examples.

Local Coordinates
A local coordinates system whose origin is located within the element in order to simplify the
algebraic manipulations in the derivation of the element matrix.
The use of natural coordinates in expressing approximate functions is advantageous because
special integration formulas can often be applied to evaluate the integrals in the element matrix.
Natural coordinates also play a crucial role in the development of elements with carved
boundaries.
Natural Coordinates
It is a local coordinate system that permits the specification of a point within the element by a
dimensionless parameter whose absolute magnitude never exceeds unity.
It is dimension less.
They are defined with respect to the element rather than with reference to the global coordinates.
Global Coordinates
Global coordinates are convenient for specifying the location of each node, the orientation of each
element, the boundary conditions and the loads for the entire domain.
The solution to the field variable is generally represented with respect to the global coordinates.

http://www.civilengineeringterms.com/structural-engineering/local-

## What is isoparametric element?

Isoparametric elements use the same set of shape functions to represent both the element
geometry and displacement interpolations (ux, uy). The shape functions are defined by natural
coordinates, such as triangle coordinates for triangles and square coordinates for any quadrilateral.

The

of

isoparametric

elements

include

the

ability

to

map

more

complex

## Lagrangian Vs. Serendipity Finite Elements

Lagrangian elements have two disadvantages, It will give one additional internal node(centre
node) and Incomplete polynomial.
Serendipity elements don't have centre node and gives complete polynomial. see Pascal
triangle.
refer "Energy and fem in structural mechanics" by Irving H.Shames.

http://imechanica.org/node/8325

In finite element analysis the following types of integrations are widely used in one
dimensional and two dimensional problems especially for the computation of element
stiffness or for the element nodal vector.
b

f ( x)dx
a

d b

c a

f ( x, y )dx dy

d b

f ( x, y, z)dx dy dz

c a

Several methods are available to solve the integration among the methods Gauss
quadrature method is most widely used. Another method is Newtons cotes

courtesy S.Md.

courtesy S.Md.

## Mostly, this Gauss-quadrature method is used

to find the approximate value of integral
function similar to above when the variables
are in natural coordinate system as in the
case of stiffness matrix calculation. If E and
11are considered as natural coordinates for
the two dimensional rectangular element as
shown in the above fig then the integral
function and its approximating method will be
given as

courtesy

## Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point P which has local

coordinates as follows.

## The Cartesian coordinates of the element at its nodes

0.8 and
1,2,3,5 units in the table and the local coordinates
of 0.6 units
the point P is
1
2
3
4

Tutorial 3.1

12

10

## courtesy S.Md. Jalaludeen

Now, once again by substituting the values of shape functions and nodal coordinates in Eqn.
(1), we can get the values of Cartesian coordinates of the point P.

Tutorial 3.1

## courtesy S.Md. Jalaludeen

The Cartesian coordinates of the corner nodes of a quadrilateral element are given by (0, -1), (2,3), (2, 4) and (5, 3). Find the coordinate transformation between the global and local
coordinates. Using this, determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point defined by (r, s) = (0.5,
0.5) in the local coordinate system.
For the given quadrilateral element the Cartesian coordinates
are shown in fig,
1

-2

-1

Tutorial 3.2

Tutorial 3.2

## For the element shown in figure .Determine the Jacobian matrix.

The Cartesian coordinates of the given
element are,
1

-1

Tutorial 3.4

Tutorial 3.4

## Evaluate the Jacobian matrix at the local coordinates

element with its global coordinates as shown in fig .Also evaluate the strain-displacement
matrix.

10

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

## courtesy S.Md. Jalaludeen

Establish the strain-displacement matrix for the linear quadrilateral element as shown in fig. at
Gauss point
in local coordinate system.

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6