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You are on page 1of 20

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to :

a) Draw a free body diagram (FBD), and,

In-Class Activities:

b) Apply equations of equilibrium to solve a Reading Quiz

2-D problem.

Applications

What, Why and How of

a FBD

Equations of Equilibrium

Analysis of Spring and

Pulleys

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

READING QUIZ

1) When a particle is in equilibrium, the sum of forces acting

on it equals ___ . (Choose the most appropriate answer)

A) a constant

B) a positive number C) zero

D) a negative number E) an integer.

2) For a frictionless pulley and cable, tensions in the cable

(T1 and T2) are related as _____ .

A) T1 > T2

B) T1 = T2

C) T1 < T2

D) T1 = T2 sin

APPLICATIONS

For a spool of given

weight, what are the forces

in cables AB and AC ?

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

For a given cable strength,

what is the maximum

weight that can be lifted ?

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

For a given weight of the

lights, what are the forces

in the cables? What size

of cable must you use ?

(Section 3.3)

This is an example of a 2-D or

coplanar force system. If the

whole assembly is in

equilibrium, then particle A is

also in equilibrium.

Space Diagram

the cables for a given weight

of the engine, we need to

learn how to draw a free body

diagram and apply equations

of equilibrium.

FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD)

Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for

you to know how to draw and use.

What ? - It is a drawing that shows

all external forces acting on the

particle.

Why ? - It helps you write the

equations of equilibrium used to

solve for the unknowns (usually

forces or angles).

How ?

1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its

surroundings.

2. Show all the forces that act on the particle.

Active forces: They want to move the particle.

Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.

3. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes

and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and /

or directions as variables. Include a reference frame.

A

FBD at A

Since particle A is in equilibrium, the

net force at A is zero.

So FAB + FAC + FAD = 0

A

FBD at A

or F = 0

Fx i + Fy j = 0 = 0 i + 0 j (A vector equation)

Or, written in a scalar form,

Fx = 0 and Fy = 0

These are two scalar equations of equilibrium. They can be

used to solve for up to two unknowns.

EXAMPLE

FBD at A

+ Fx = TB cos 30 TD = 0

+ Fy = TB sin 30 2.452 kN = 0

Solving the second equation gives: TB = 4.90 kN

From the first equation, we get: TD = 4.25 kN

deformation, or

F=k* S

With a

frictionless

pulley, T1 = T2.

EXAMPLE

Given: Sack A weighs 20

lb. and geometry is

as shown.

Find: Forces in the

cables and weight

of sack B.

Plan:

1. Draw a FBD for Point E.

2. Apply EofE at Point E to

solve for the unknowns

(TEG & TEC).

3. Repeat this process at C.

EXAMPLE

(continued)

A FBD at E should look like the one

to the left. Note the assumed

directions for the two cable tensions.

The scalar E-of-E are:

+ Fx = TEG sin 30 TEC cos 45 = 0

+ Fy = TEG cos 30 TEC sin 45 20 lbs = 0

Solving these two simultaneous equations for the

two unknowns yields:

TEC = 38.6 lb

TEG = 54.6 lb

EXAMPLE (continued)

A FBD for C should look

like the one to the left.

Fx = 38.64 cos 45 (4/5) TCD = 0

Fy = (3/5) TCD + 38.64 sin 45 WB = 0

Solving the first equation and then the second yields

TCD = 34.2 lb

and WB = 47.8 lb .

CONCEPT QUESTIONS

1000 lb

1000 lb

( A)

(B)

1000 lb

(C)

determine the forces in the cables in which system above?

2) Why?

A) The weight is too heavy.

B) The cables are too thin.

C) There are more unknowns than equations.

D) There are too few cables for a 1000 lb

weight.

Given: The car is towed at

constant speed by the 600

lb force and the angle is

25.

Find:

and AC.

Plan:

1. Draw a FBD for point A.

2. Apply the E-of-E to solve for the

forces in ropes AB and AC.

(continued)

600 lb

FBD at point A

A

25

FAB

30

FAC

+ Fx = FAC cos 30 FAB cos 25 = 0

+ Fy = -FAC sin 30 FAB sin 25 + 600 = 0

Solving the above equations, we get;

FAB = 634 lb

FAC = 664 lb

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. Select the correct FBD of particle A.

30

A 40

100 lb

A)

F1

B)

100 lb

C)

F

30

A

100 lb

F2

30

40

A

D)

F1

30

A

100 lb

F2

40

ATTENTION QUIZ

2. Using this FBD of Point C, the sum of

forces in the x-direction ( FX) is ___ .

Use a sign convention of + .

A) F2 sin 50 20 = 0

B) F2 cos 50 20 = 0

C) F2 sin 50 F1 = 0

D) F2 cos 50 + 20 = 0

F2

20 lb

50

C

F1

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