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ZEOLITE
ZEOLITE
What are zeolites?  Natural or synthetic crystalline, microporous, aluminosilicate materials with well-defined structures and unique
What are zeolites?
 Natural or synthetic crystalline, microporous,
aluminosilicate materials with well-defined
structures and unique characteristics
M a D b T c [Al (a+2b+3c) Si [x-a+2b+3c)] O 2x ] .
mH O
Zeolite types  Natural zeolites form where volcanic rocks and ash layers react with alkaline groundwater.
Zeolite types
 Natural
zeolites
form
where volcanic rocks and
ash
layers
react
with
alkaline groundwater.
 Synthetic
zeolites
are
created through a slow
crystallization
process
using a combination of
silica and alumina
and
using a foundation of alkali
and organic templates.
Structure SiO 4 4- and AlO 4 5- tetrahedra linked in several ways, resulting in over
Structure
SiO 4 4- and AlO 4 5- tetrahedra
linked in several
ways,
resulting
in
over
130
different
3D
framework structures
http://www.bza.org/zeolites.html
Structure  The presence of Al in the framework induces a negative charge that is balanced
Structure
 The presence of Al in the framework induces a
negative charge that is balanced by an
extraframework cation.
http://www.mpi-
muelheim mpg de/kofo/institut/arbeitsbereiche/schmidt/zeolites ee html
Classification  Zeolite A is a small-pore zeolite in which the Si:Al ratio is 1 and
Classification
 Zeolite A is
a small-pore zeolite in which the Si:Al
ratio is 1 and the cages are linked octahedrically.
 The pore diameter varies from about 3 to 5 Å.
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/rock-limestone-and-
clay/10/1
Classification  Zeolites X and Y are large-pore zeolites (6-8 Å) containing various Si:Al ratios and
Classification
Zeolites X and Y are large-pore zeolites (6-8
Å) containing
various
Si:Al
ratios and
tetrahedrically linked cages
http://www.molecularsieve.
org
Classification  Zeolite L - the crystals are very flat cylinders of "hockeypuck" or "coin" shape
Classification
 Zeolite
L
-
the
crystals are very flat
cylinders
of
"hockeypuck" or
"coin" shape
 Linear
which
channels
in
one-
dimensional
diffusion takes place
 Hexagonal
system
crystal
Properties  Molecular Sieve Effect http://www.mpi- muelheim mpg de/kofo/institut/arbeitsbereiche/schmidt/zeolites ee html
Properties
 Molecular Sieve Effect
http://www.mpi-
muelheim mpg de/kofo/institut/arbeitsbereiche/schmidt/zeolites ee html
Properties  Ion-exchange http://www.mpi- muelheim mpg de/kofo/institut/arbeitsbereiche/schmidt/zeolites ee html
Properties
 Ion-exchange
http://www.mpi-
muelheim mpg de/kofo/institut/arbeitsbereiche/schmidt/zeolites ee html
Properties  Acidity
Properties
 Acidity
Dimension al stability Interest for electrochemists Durabilit y and chemical Thermal stability Electrochemic al interface +
Dimension
al
stability
Interest for
electrochemists
Durabilit
y
and
chemical
Thermal stability
Electrochemic
al interface
+
?
Hydrophilic
character
GEOPOLYMER General Formula of Geopolymer : nM 2 O·Al 2 O 3 ·xSiO 2 ·yH 2
GEOPOLYMER
General Formula of Geopolymer :
nM 2 O·Al 2 O 3 ·xSiO 2 ·yH 2 O (M : alkali
metal)
x = 1, SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 = 1
x > 1, SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3
> 1
silicate oligomeric + aluminate
aluminate + silicate
Results :
Differences in geopolymer chains
Differences in geopolymer
properties
Zeolit Vs Geopolimer Aspek Sintesis zeolit Geopolimerisasi • Reaktan Larutan kompleks Al + Larutan kompleks Si
Zeolit Vs Geopolimer
Aspek
Sintesis zeolit
Geopolimerisasi
Reaktan
Larutan kompleks Al + Larutan
kompleks Si
Material padat mengandung Al-Si
+ larutan Alkalin
Reaksi awal
Nukleasi dalam larutan
Pelepasan H2O menjadi bentuk
gel
Reaksi
Kristal tumbuh dalam larutan
kemudian
Disolusi dan kondensasi dari
pelepasan kompleks Al dan Si
dalam gel
Temperatur
90-300 °C
Relatif rendah (dibawah 100 °C)
pembuatan
pH
6-11
14
komposisi
Rumus stoikiometrik tertentu
Tidak ada rumus stoikiometrik
tertentu
Struktur
Kristal yang unik
Struktur tak beraturan sampai
semi-kristal
Jumlah
larutan yang
digunakan
Relatif banyak (sampai fase
padat terendam)
Relatif sedikit (membentuk gel)
Kekuatan
Rendah
tinggi
mekanis
Skema Proses Geopolimerisasi (van Deventer dkk, 2007)
Skema Proses Geopolimerisasi (van Deventer dkk, 2007)
Reaksi Pelarutan dan Hidrolisis Si dan Al (Zuhua, 2008) :
Reaksi Pelarutan dan Hidrolisis Si dan Al (Zuhua, 2008) :
Reaksi Geopolimerisasi secara Sederhana (Davidovits, 1994b) : Kisaran Suhu Kristalisasi dari Sistem SiO 2 /Al 2
Reaksi Geopolimerisasi secara Sederhana (Davidovits, 1994b) :
Kisaran Suhu Kristalisasi dari Sistem SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 (Davidovits, 1991)
Pembentukan Monomer Sialat
Pembentukan Monomer Sialat
Pembentukan Monomer Aluminat Polikondensasi
Pembentukan Monomer Aluminat
Polikondensasi