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Link Budget

Analysis

Objectives:
Select the appropriate equipments : antenna

size, ODU, modems.


Obtain bit/Hz of the transponder
Find the budget links
Target : Cost, Quality, Capacity

Knowledge/Data Required :
Satellite Parameters : EiRP, G/T, SFD range,

frequency, linearity performance, adjacent


satellite.
Ground segment data :
Modem spec : mod-cod, max/min speed, FEC,

others features (ACM, CnC).


Amplifier characteristic : TWTA vs SSPA/BUC
Tracking system

Satellite Parameters :
EiRP :

EiRP = Pt [dBw] + Gt [dB](directivity)


directivity is how focus the antenna : smaller beam has higher directivity.

C-Band

Ku-Band

G/T & SFD


G/T Represent receiver performance of the satellite.
SFD : density of the signal received by the satellite receiver, the units is

dBW/m2
SFD is adjustable and related to G/T contour. Typical SFD range : -80 to -100
dBw/m2
SFD will limit the uplink power of the ground segment, the quick formula are :
SFDsat = EiRP - 162.1 or SFDsat = Pt cable loss + Gtx - 162.1 (saturated
mode)
SFDsat iBO + (BWcrx [Mhz]/36) = Pt cable loss + Gtx 162.1 (linear
mode, multi crx)
example:
SFDsat = -90 dBw/m2
antenna = 4.5m (Gtx : 47.2 dB)
BW = 1.2 MHz
loss cable = 0.5 dB
Pt = SFDsat + loss cable Gtx + 162.1 iBO +
10*log(BWcrx [Mhz]/36)

Linearity
Parameter affected :
C/3IM (multi-carrier operation)
Phase shift variation
AM/PM conversion : great impact to the high order modulation (16, 32APSK)

oBO vs C/3IM

C/3IM vs Mod-Cod
Single-carrier with high order mod-cod still have to be

operated with backoff.


High order modulation if operated at non-linear region will
experience degradation due to non-linearity.
Transponder operation

IBO

OBO

C/IM2

ACI

01-Multi-Carrier 6 - 3 QPSK

21

30

02-Multi-Carrier 6 - 3 8PSK

21

30

03-Multi-Carrier 6 - 3 16APSK

19

30

04-Multi-Carrier 6 - 3 32APSK

17

30

05-Single - Carrier QPSK

1.3

0.65

19.5

100

06-Single - Carrier 8PSK

1.3

0.65

18.3

100

07-Single - Carrier 16APSK

4.5

1.6

18.5

100

08-Single - Carrier 32APSK

3.5

19.5

100

AM/PM conversion

Pointing Loss & Adjacent Satellite

Pointing loss : G() = G [12 * (/ -3dB)2]

I(ASI) : 29 25 * log()

[adjacent satellite interference]

C/I(ASI) : Gant [29 25 * log()]

[adjacent satellite interference]

Ground Segment
Modem Evolution :
Maximum bitrate and mod-cod
Forward Error Correction : Viterbi-RS, TPC, LDPC,

DVB-S2 (LDPC+BCH)
Other features : AUPC, CnC, roll-off 5%, ACM, non
linear pre-distortion, MTU size, TCP acc.

RF Amplifier
SSPA vs TWTA :
TWTA : above 400 Watt
C-Band TWTA Max 2.25 kW, Ku-Band TWTA Max 1.25 kW.
SSPA : Transceiver or BUC, max 400 Watt for C band and
1.25 kWatt for Ku-Band.
Higher power SSPA can be achieved by phase combining
(modular system), TWTA usually available in single unit.
Newer TWTA usually equipped by linearizer.
TWTA consume less power, but slow warming up (in
redundant system backup TWTA must always on standby)
SSPA consume more power but backup unit can be turned
off, and power consumption can be reduced in phase
combining system.

Tracking System :
Contribute the pointing loss.
Earth Station closer to the satellite longitude

may experience greater pointing loss.


SAPM antenna has better x-pol performance,
but need more precise true north pointing.

Transponder vs Ground Segment


Small antenna is more attractive : low cost,

easy installation, cheaper delivery and


installation.
But, small antenna will consume more
transponder power and need to be
compensated with lower order mod-cod (small
antenna need more bandwidth).
For SCPC links with high datarate, the
bandwidth efficiency achieved by using bigger
antenna may compensate the antenna cost.

THANK YOU