You are on page 1of 70

Internal

OMA000001
GSM Fundamentals
ISSUE 4.0

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

www.huawei.com

All rights reserved

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:


Grasp basic idea of GSM system such as
frequency spectrum, frequency reuse etc.
Grasp the structure of the GSM system and the
protocol used.
Grasp certain numbers that refer to BSS
Grasp the 4 kinds of channel combination and
understand the idea of multi-frame.
Know some radio techniques
Get the idea of EDGE

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 2

References
BSS Feature Description
BSS Signaling Analysis Manual
BSC Technical Manual

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 3

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview


Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure
Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning
Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface
Chapter 5 Radio Techniques
Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 4

GSM system overview


The GSM system is a frequency- and time-division cellular system,

each physical channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a


time slot number
Cellular systems are designed to operate with groups of low-power

radios spread out over the geographical service area. Each group of
radios serve MSs presently located near them. The area served by
each group of radios is called a CELL
Uplink and downlink signals for one user are assigned different

frequencies, this kind of technique is called Frequency Division Duplex


(FDD)
Data for different users is conveyed in time intervals called slots ,

several slots make up a frame. This kind of technique is called Time


Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 5

GSM Development

1989

Standard Protocol for GSM take effect

1991

GSM system began to provide service in Europe(2G)

1992

System was named as Global System for


Mobile Communication

1994

Provide services for the whole world

1996

Micro Cell Technique is used in GSM system

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 6

Cell Technique
Macro Cell and Micro Cell
A certain radio coverage area formed by a set of transceivers that

connected to a set of antennas is called a CELL.


Macro Cell

In the beginning , High-Power BTSs are adopted to provide services.


The BTS covers a wider area , but its frequency utilization is not
efficient. So , it can only provide a few channels for subscribers.
Micro Cell

Later the Low-Power BTS joins the system for getting a better service
area with high capacity . At the same time it adopts the frequency reuse
technique to improve the efficiency of the frequency utilization and also
the whole capacity of the network.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 7

Multiple Access Technique


Multiple Access Technique allows many subscribers to use the

same communication medium.


There are three kinds of basic Multiple Access Technique :

FDMA , TDMA and CDMA.


GSM system adopt FDD-TDMA (FDMA and TDMA together).

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 8

FDMA
FDMA uses different frequency

channels to accomplish
communication.

Frequency

The whole frequency spectrum

Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

available is divided into many


individual channels (for
transmitting and
receiving) every channel can
support the traffic for one
subscriber or some control
information.

All rights reserved

Page 9

TDMA
TDMA accomplishes the

communication in different
timeslot.

Frequency

A carrier is divided into

Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

channels based on time.


Different signals occupy
different timeslots in certain
sequence , that is , many
signals are transmitted on
the same frequency in
different time.

All rights reserved

Page 10

CDMA
CDMA accomplishes the

communication in different
code sequences.

Frequency

Special coding is adopted

Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

before transmission, then


different information will
lose nothing after being
mixed and transmitted
together on the same
frequency and at the
same time.

All rights reserved

Page 11

The Frequency Spectrum


GSM 900

Uplink
890

Downlink
915

935

Duplex Separation:
Channel Bandwidth:
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

960MHz

45MHz
200KHz
Page 12

The Frequency Spectrum


DCS 1800

Base Station Receive


1710

Base Station Transmit


1785 1805

Duplex Separation:
Channel Bandwidth:
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

1880MHz

95MHz
200KHz
Page 13

The Frequency Spectrum


Frequency Range
Spectrum (MHz)

Uplink Frequency

Frequency
Point
Available

Downlink
Frequency

GSM 450

450.4~457.6
460.4~467.6

Fu(n)=450.6+0.2(n259)

259<=n<=293

Fd(n)=Fu(n)+10

GSM 480

478.8~486
488.8~496

Fu(n)=479+0.2(n-306)

306<=n<=340

Fd(n)=Fu(n)+10

GSM 850

824~849
869~894

Fu(n)=824.2+0.2(n128)

128<=n<=251

Fd(n)=Fu(n)+45

E-GSM
900

880~915
925~960

Fu(n)=890+0.2n
Fu(n)=890+0.2(n-1024)

0<=n<=124
975<=n<=102
3

Fd(n)=Fu(n)+45

R-GSM
900

876~915
921~960

Fu(n)=890+0.2n
Fu(n)=890+0.2(n-1024)

0<=n<=124
955<=n<=102
3

Fd(n)=Fu(n)+45

1850~1910
Fu(n)=1850.2+0.2(n512<=n<=810
1930~1990
512)
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.
All rights reserved

Fd(n)=Fu(n)+80

PCS 1900

Page 14

Frequency Reuse
The frequency resource of mobile system is very limited.
The different Subscribers can use the same frequency in

different places.
The quality of communication must be ensured.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 15

Frequency Reuse

7(Site)X 1(Cell) reuse

2
7

23
1

4
5

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 16

Frequency Reuse

7
11

6
10

8
12

4 site X 3 cells reuse

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 17

Cell Types

Omni

Omni-directional Cell

1
1
120
degree

120 Degree Cell

3
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 18

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview


Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure
Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning
Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface
Chapter 5 Radio Techniques
Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 19

GSM-GPRS Network Component


MSC/VLR

PSTN
ISDN

GMSC

GSM /GPRS BSS


MS

BSC
HLR/AUC

BTS
PCU

SS7

BSC

MS

SMS system

BTS
Internet,
Intranet

GPRS Backbone

SGSN
OMC

CG

GGSN
BG
Other PLMN

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 20

Interface Between Different Entities


MSC/VLR

PSTN
ISDN

GMSC

GSM /GPRS BSS


MS

Abis

BSC

BTS
PCU

SS7
Gb

BSC

MS Um

HLR/AUC

C/D/Gs

Gr/Gs/Gd/Ge

BTS

SMS system
Gc

GPRS backbone

SGSN
Ga
OMC

CG

Gi

GGSN
BG
Gp

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Internet,
Intranet

All rights reserved

Page 21

Other PLMN

Mobile StationMS
MS=ME+SIM
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)
Mobile Equipment

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)


Subscriber Identity Module

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 22

Subscriber Identity Module SIM

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

(IMSI)
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

SIM

Location Area Identity (LAI)


Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 23

Base Station Subsystem BSS


MSC
The Base Station Controller

BSC

BSS

The Base Transceiver Station

BTS
The Trans-coder TC and

TC/SM
TC/SM
BSC
BSC

Sub multiplexer (SM)

BTS
BTS

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 24

Packet Control Unit-----PCU


MSC
Packet data

switching
Bridge between

SGSN and BSC


Provide Pb and

BSS
TC/SM
TC/SM

GPRS
Backbone

Gb interface

BSC
BSC

PCU
PCU

BTS
BTS
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 25

SGSN
SGSN

The Network Switching System

NSS
OMC

AUC
AUC
HLR
HLR
EIR
EIR

EC
EC

MSC/VLR
MSC/VLR

Mobile-service Switching Center


Home Location Register
Visitor Location Register
Equipment Identity Register
Authentication Center
Echo Cancellor
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

MSC
HLR
VLR
EIR
AUC
EC

All rights reserved

BSS
Page 26

PSTN

Mobile-service Switching Center MSC

Call Processing
Operations and Maintenance Support
Interface management
Inter-network & Inter-working
Billing

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 27

Home Location Register HLR

Subscriber ID (IMSI and MSISDN)


Current subscriber VLR (current location)
Supplementary service information
Subscriber status (registered/deregistered)
Authentication key and AuC functionality

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 28

Visitor Location Register VLR

Mobile Status (IMSI attached / detached / busy / idle etc.)


Location Area Identity(LAI)
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI)
Allocating the Roaming Number

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 29

Equipment Identity Register EIR


White List
Black List

IMEI is Checked In White List

Grey List

If NOT found
EIR focus on the
equipment , not the
subscriber!!

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

IMEI is Checked in Black/Grey List

All rights reserved

Page 30

OMC Functional Architecture


Security
Management

Event/Alarm
Management

MMI
OS

DB

Fault
Management

Configuration
Management
Performance
Management

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 31

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview


Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure
Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning
Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface
Chapter 5 Radio Techniques
Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 32

Service Area

Service Area
PLMN
PLMN service
service area
area
MSC service area...

PLMN service area


MSC service area...

Location area...

Location area...

cell

cell

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 33

......

LAI
MCC

MNC

LAC

Location Area Identification

The LAI is the international code for a location area.


MCC: Mobile Country Code It consists of 3 digits .
For example: The MCC of China is "460"
MNC: Mobile Network Code It consists of 2 digits .
For example: The MNC of China Mobile is "00"
LAC: Location Area Code It is a two bytes hex code.
The value 0000 and FFFF is invalid.
For example: 460-00-0011
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 34

CGI
CGI: Cell Global Identification

The CGI is a unique international identification for a cell


The format is LAI+CI
LAI: Location Area Identification
CI: Cell Identity. This code uses two bytes hex code to
identify the cells within an LAI.
For example : 460-00-0011-0001

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 35

BSIC
BSIC Base Station Identification Color Code)

NCC

BCC
BSIC

NCC: PLMN network color code. It comprises 3 bit. It


allows various neighboring PLMNs to be
distinguished.
BCC: BTS color code. It comprises 3 bit, used to
distinguish different cells assigned the same
frequency!
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 36

MSISDN
CC

NDC

SN

National (significant)
Mobile number
Mobile station international
ISDN number

CC: Country Code. For example: The CC of China is "86".


NDC: National Destination Code. For example: The NDC of
China Telecom is 139, 138, 137, 136, 135.
SN: Subscriber Number. Format:H0 H1 H2 H3 ABCD
Example: 86-139-0666-1234

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 37

IMSI
Not more than 15 digits
3 digits

2 digits

MCC

MNC

MSIN
NMSI

IMSI
MCC: Mobile Country Code It consists of 3 digits .
For example: The MCC of China is "460"
MNC: Mobile Network Code It consists of 2 digits .
For example: The MNC of China Telecom is "00"
MSIN: Mobile Subscriber Identification Number. H1H2H3 S ABCDEF
For example: 666-9777001
NMSI: National Mobile Subscriber Identification MNC and MSIN
form it together.
For Example of IMSI : 460-00-666-9777001
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 38

TMSI
TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identification)
The TMSI is assigned only after successful subscriber

authentication.
The VLR controls the allocation of new TMSI numbers and notifies

them to the HLR.


TMSI is used to ensure that the identity of the mobile subscriber

on the air interface is kept secret.


The TMSI consists of 4 bytes( 8 HEX numbers) and determined by

the operator.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 39

IMEI
IMEI: International Mobile Station Equipment Identification

TAC

FAC

SNR

SP

IMEI
TAC:
TAC: Type
Type approval
approval code,
code, 66 bit,
bit, determined
determined by
by the
the type
type approval
approval center
center
FAC:
FAC: Final
Final assembly
assembly code,
code, 22 bit,
bit, ItIt isis determined
determined by
by the
the manufacturer.
manufacturer.
SNR:
SNR: Serial
Serial number,
number,66 bits,
bits, ItIt isis issued
issued by
by the
the manufacturer
manufacturer of
of the
the MS.
MS.
SP:
SP: 11 bit
bit ,, Not
Not used.
used.

Check
Check the
the IMEI
IMEI in
in your
your MS
MS :: *#06#
*#06#

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 40

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview


Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure
Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning
Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface
Chapter 5 Radio Techniques
Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 41

Physical Channel and Logical Channel


The physical channel is the medium over which the
information is carried: 200KHz and 0.577ms
The logical channel consists of the information carried
over the physical channels

1 2

Timeslot

3 4

5 6

7 0

1 2

The
Theinformation
informationcarried
carriedin
inone
onetime
time
slot
slotis
iscalled
calledaaburst
burst

TDMA FRAME
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

TDMA FRAME
Page 42

Two types of Logical Channel


Traffic Channel (TCH) :
Transmits traffic information, include data
and speech.

Control Channel (CCH) :


Or Signaling Channel, transmits all kinds of
control information.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 43

Traffic Channel (TCH)


TCH
Traffic Channels

Speech

TCH/FS

TCH/HS

Data

TCH/9.6

TCH Traffic Channel


TCH/FS Full rate Speech Channel
TCH/HS Half rate Speech Channel
TCH/9.6 Data Channel 9.6kb/s
TCH/4.8 Data Channel 4.8kb/s
TCH/2.4 Data Channel 2.4Kb/s
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

TCH/2.4

TCH/4.8
All rights reserved

Page 44

Control Channel (CCH)


CCH (Control Channels)
DCCH
SDCCH

FACCH

BCH

ACCH

BCCH

SACCH

Broadcast Control Channel BCCH


Common Control Channel CCCH
Dedicated Control Channel DCCH
Associated Control Channel ACCH
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

CCCH
RACH

SCH

CBCH

PCH/AGCH

All rights reserved

Page 45

Synch. CH.

FCCH

Broadcast Control Channel BCCH


CCH

The information carried on the BCCH


is monitored by the MS

BCH

periodically when it is in idle mode


BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel
FCCH: Frequency Correction Channel
SCH: Synchronization Channel

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

BCCH

Synch.
Channels

SCH

FCCH

All rights reserved

Page 46

Common Control Channel CCCH


CCH

The CCCH is responsible for


transferring control information
between all mobiles and the
network.

CCCH

RACH: Random Access Channel


PCH: Paging Channel
AGCH: Access Granted Channel

RACH
uplink

CBCH: Cell Broadcast Channel

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

CBCH
downlink

PCH/AGCH
downlink

Page 47

Dedicated Control Channel DCCH


DCCH is assigned to a single
wireless connection for
measurement and handover
purpose.
SDCCH: Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel
ACCH: Associated Control Channel
SACCH: Slow Associated
Control Channel
FACCH: Fast Associated Control
Channel

CCH

DCCH

SDCCH

FACCH
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

ACCH

SACCH

Page 48

Uplink Logical channel

RACH

CCCH

SDCCH
SACCH

DCCH

CCH

DCH

FACCH
TCH/F
TCH/H

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

TCH

All rights reserved

Page 49

Downlink Logical channel


FCCH

CCH

BCCH

SCH
BCCH

CCCH

PCH
AGCH

SDCCH

DCH

DCCH

SACCH
FACCH

TCH

TCH/F
TCH/H

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 50

How to use these channels?


Power-off

Search for frequency correction burst


Search for synchronous burst
Extract system information

FCCH
SCH
BCCH

Idle mode

Monitor paging message


Send access burst
Allocate signaling channel
Dedicated mode

Set up the call


Allocate voice channel
Conversation
Release the call

Idle mode

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

PCH
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
TCH
FACCH

Page 51

Packet logic channel


TCH

Packet data channel (PDCH)

Comprising packet service channel and packet control channel

TCH
Packet service channel (PDTCH)

Combined into the single-directional service channel

BCCH
CCCH

Packet control channel

SACCH

Broadcast control channel: PBCCH


Public control channel: PPCH, PRACH, PAGCH
Private control channel: PACCH, PTCCH

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 52

GSM Logical Channel Combination


Main BCCH combination FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH
SDCCH combination SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8
Combined BCCH BCCH + CCCH +SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4
TCH/FR combination TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F
TCH/HR combination TCH/H + FACCH/H + SACCH/H

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 53

Combination of packet logic channel


Packet logic channels (PDCH) can be combined via the following three modes

Mode 1: PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH;

Mode 2: PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH;

Mode 3: PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH

In case of small GPRS traffic, GPRS and circuit services use the same BCCH

and CCCH in the cell. In this case, only combination mode 3 is needed in the cell

With the increase of traffic, the packet public channel should be configured in the

cell. Channel combination mode 1 and mode 2 should be adopted

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 54

GSM Multi-frames
TDMA Frames
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

46 47 48 49 50

51 Frame Multi-frames

CONTROL
CHANNELS
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 55

GSM Multi-frames
TDMA Frames
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4

21 22 23 24 25

26 Frame Multi-frames

TRAFFIC
CHANNELS
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 56

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview


Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure
Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning
Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface
Chapter 5 Radio Techniques
Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 57

Power Control
Both Uplink and Downlink
power settings can be
controlled
independently
and individually.

5W
0.8W

Saves battery power


Reduces co-channel and
adjacent channel interference

8W
BCCH ------Does not attend Power control

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 58

DTX and VAD

Discontinuous Transmission DTX


Voice Activity Detection VAD

Battery Saving
Interference reduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 59

Timing Advance (TA)


The mobile phone should
send the signal in advance!

TA

Transmission delay t

Transmission delay t

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 60

Multi-path Fading
Diversity
Frequency Hopping

Time Dispersion
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 61

Diversity Whats Diversity?


Receive diversity provides an effective technique for both

overcoming the impact of fading across the radio channel and


increasing the received signal to interference ratio.

The former is achieved by ensuring uncorrelated (i.e. low enough

correlated) fading between antenna branches i.e. not all antennas


experience fades at the same time.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 62

Kinds of Diversity

Time diversity

Coding, interleaving
Frequency diversity

Frequency hopping
Space diversity

Multiple antennas
Polarization diversity

Dual-polarized antennas
Multi-path diversity

Equalizer

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 63

Frequency Hopping
Frequency

f0
f1
f2
f3
f4
Frame
Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 64

Chapter 1 GSM System Overview


Chapter 2 GSM Network Structure
Chapter 3 Service Area and Number Planning
Chapter 4 Channels on the Wireless Interface
Chapter 5 Radio Techniques
Chapter 6 GPRS & EDGE Introduction

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 65

GSM Development Evolution

3G
2.5G
2G

115 kbps
57.6 kbps

9.6 kbps

2Mbps
384kbps

IMT-2000

EDGE

GPRS

HSCSD

GSM

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 66

Data rate of EDGE and GPRS

8PSK

GMSK
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 67

Huawei EDGE Test Result


Downlink, 4 TS, MCS-9

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 68

Summary

The basic idea of GSM


The frequency spectrum used in GSM
The structure of GSM
Certain service area and numbers
Some radio techniques used in GSM
Evolution of GSM

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 69

Thank You
www.huawei.com