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Bab 2 Transformasi Laplace

mathematician and astronomer


Pierre-Simon Laplace
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Transformasi Laplace,

[f(t)]

Definisi : Misalkan f(t) fungsi yang ditentukan


untuk semua t yang positip, maka Transformasi
Laplace dari f(t) adalah L f(t) dan ditulis:

f(t) F (s)

-st

f(t) dt

Transformasi Laplace

IVP = initial value problem


(kondisi awal)

Contoh
L 2

sx

2 dx

x 0

e sx
2

x 0
1

2(0 ( ))

Contoh
>fungsi sinusoidal

L{A sin t}= A

(sin t ) e

-st

dt

Transformasi dari t

Tabel Laplace (rekap)


f(t)
1

(t)

1(t)

e-at

t. e-at

Sin t

Cos t

F(s)
1
1
s
1
s2
1
sa
1
(s a ) 2

Impulsa
satuan
tangga
satuan

s 2 2
s
s 2 2
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Tabel Laplace (lanj)


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tn

t.e

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(n=1, 2, 3, ..)

-at

(n=1, 2, 3, ..)

e sin t
-at

n!
s n 1
n!
(s a ) n 1

(s a ) 2 2

Sifat2/Teorema TL
Turunan

Sifat2/Teorema TL
Integral, S shifting, T shifting

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Sifat2/Teorema TL
T Shiting, Convolution, Period

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Theorem.

First Shifting Theorem

L{eatf(t)}=F(s+a)

Second Shifting
Theorem

L{u(tc)g(tc)}=ecsG(s
)

Initial value theorem:


Final value theorem:
if all poles of sF(s) are in the left half-plane
The final value theorem is useful because it gives
the long-term behaviour without having to
perform partial fraction decompositions or other
difficult algebra. If has poles in the right-hand
plane or on the imaginary axis,on contrary if one
pole is present on the imaginary axis atmost then
Final Value theorem can be applied. (e.g., if or )
the behaviour of this formula is undefined

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Sifat-sifat/Teorema Transformasi
Laplace

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(ii) L{ a f1(t) + b f2(t) } = a L{ f1(t) } + b L{ (t) }

Bila L{ f (t) } = F ( s )
(iii) L{ e

at

maka :

f(t) } = F ( s a )
n

d
F(s)
(iv) L{ tn f(t) } = (-1)n ds n

(v)

L{ f(t) } =

F (s) ds
s

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Soal-soal
1

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Unit Step
Function

u(t)
1

0; t 0
u (t )
1; t 0
1
L{u(t)}=
s

time (sec)

0
sin(t)

u(t)

time

Useful for representing


sudden changes

sin(t)u(t)

e.g. application of
sinusoid at t = 0

time
0

EC&S CHAPTER 2

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Unit Impulse
Function
Mathematical representation of
short burst of input (lightning,
hammer blow, etc.)
Exact shape unimportant if
duration short relative to effects

1
T

approximation
to unit impulse

area = 1

1 st
L{(t)} = Lim e dt = 1
t 0 t

(t)

representation of
ideal unit impulse

Impulse functions sometimes used to


test system dynamics
0
EC&S CHAPTER 2

time
(sec)

time
(sec)
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Transformasi Laplace

X ( s ) x (t ).e st dt
0

1
st
x(t )
X
(
s
).
e
ds

2j j
s j

X(s) = L[x(t)]
x(t) = L-1[X(s)]

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Inverse Transformasi
Laplace
Pecahan Parsial X(s)
Jika X(s) berbentuk pecahan parsial yang
pembilang dan penyebutnya berbentuk
polinomial

P( s)
X ( s)
Q( s)
dimana derajat P(s) < derajat Q(s)

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Kasus-kasus yang sering


dijumpai

Akar-akar Q(s) berbeda, tidak ada yang sama

P(s)
X ( s)
( s p1 )( s p2 )...( s pn )
An
A1
A2
X ( s)

...
( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )
Ak lim ( s pk ). X ( s )
s pk

k 1,2,...n
x(t) menjadi :

x(t ) A1e

p1t

A2 e

p2t

... An e

pn t
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Q(s) mempunyai akar rangkap (berulang)

P (s)
X (s)
(s p1 ) r (s p 2 )...(s p n )
A 11
A 12
A 1r
X (s)

...
2
(s p1 ) (s p1 )
(s p1 ) r
A2
An

...
(s p 2 )
(s p n )
A k lim (s p k ).X (s)
s pk

A kl

1
d rl
r

lim
(
s

p
)
.X (s)
k
r l s p
k
( r l)! ds

spk

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x(t) menjadi :

x(t) (A11 A 12 t A 13

2!

.. A 1r

r 1

).e

( r 1)!

p1t

A 2e

p2t

..

A n e pn t

Jika pi = pk*, maka penyelesaian dapat


diselesaikan secara khusus yang
menghasilkan x(t) merupakan fungsi Cosinus
dan Sinus

Q(s) difaktorkan menjadi


Q(s) (s (a jb))(s (a - jb))(s p3)(s p4)....(s pn)
Uraiannya
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A3
An
A1
A2
X( s )

...
s ( a jb ) s ( a jb ) s p3
s pn
A1 dan A2 diperoleh dari pers berikut,
A1

K (a jb) .e j

2 jb
1
A2
K ( a jb) .e j
2 jb
P( s) 2

.( s 2as a 2 b 2 )
Q( s)

K (a jb)

s a jb

x(t) menjadi,

1
p3t
at
x(t ) K (a jb) .e .sin(bt ) A3e
..
b
An e pnt

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Contoh
1

s4
( s 1)( s 2)( s 3)
A3
A1
A2
X (s)

s 1
s2
s3
s4
3
A1

( s 2)( s 3) s 1
2
X (s)

A2

s4
2
( s 1)( s 3) s 2

A3

s4
1

( s 1)( s 2) s 3
2

1
2
2
X (s)

s 1
s2
s3
t
2t
3t
1
x (t ) 3
e

2
e

e
2
2
3

t 0

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s
X ( s)
( s 1)( s 2) 2
A1
A
A12
X ( s)
11
s 1 s 2 ( s 2) 2
A1

s
1
2
( s 2) s 1

A11

1
d s
1

1
2
( 2 1)! ds s 1 s 2 ( s 1) s 2

A12

1
s
2
( 2 2)! s 1 s 2

X ( s)

1
1
2

s 1 s 2 ( s 2) 2

x(t ) e t e 2t 2te 2t
t 0
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1
X ( s)
s ( s 2 2 s 2)
A1
A2 s A3
X ( s)
2
s
s 2s 2
A1 ( s 2 2 s 2) s ( A2 s A3 )
X ( s)
s ( s 2 2 s 2)
( A1 A2 ) s 2 ( 2 A1 A3 ) s 2 A1
X ( s)
s ( s 2 2 s 2)
1
A1
2
1
A2
2
A3 1
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s 1
X(s) 2
s s 2s 2
1
1 s2
2
X(s)
2
2
s 2 (s 1) 1
1
1
s 1
1
1
2
X(s)

2
2
2
2
s 2 (s 1) 1 2 (s 1) 1
1

1
2

x ( t ) e Cos t e Sin t
( t 0)
1
2

1
2

1
2

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Soal soal Latihan

s4
s ( s 1)( s 2)
5s 1
X (s)
( s 5) 2 ( s 2)
75
X (s)
2
( s 6)( s 4 s 13)

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