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Centrifugal

Compressors

By
P.R.Bhatt

INTRODUCTION
Compressors used to increase the
pressure of a gas.
Gases being compressible,
compression causes volume reduction
there by increase in pressure &
temperature. Temperature needs to be
controlled.

CLASSIFICATION

COMPRESSORS
POSITIVE
DISPLACEMENT
RECIPROCATING

SCREW

LIQUID
RING

DYNAMIC

ROTARY TYPE

LOBE

SLIDE
VANE

CENTRIFUGAL

AXIAL

Types of Compressors
Positive Displacement (PD) : Operate by trapping
a specific volume of gas and forcing it into a
smaller volume
2 Basic Designs for PD Compressors
Rotary
Reciprocating

Centrifugal : Operate by accelerating the gas and


converting the energy to pressure
2 Basic Designs for Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal
Axial

Positive Displacement
Compressors: Rotary Design
Rotary compressors compress gases with
lobes, screws, and vanes into smaller
volumes by rotating motion.
4 Primary Types of Rotary Compressors:
Rotary Screw
Sliding Vane
Lobe
Liquid Ring

Rotary Screw Compressor

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Gas Compression

Sliding Vane Type Compressor


Uses a slightly off-center rotor with sliding vanes
to compress gas.
Inlet gas flows into the vanes when they are fully
extended and form the largest pocket. As the vanes
turn toward the discharge port, the gases are
compressed.
As the volume decreases, the pressure increases
until maximum compression is achieved. Then the
gas is discharged out the compressor.

Sliding Vane Type Compressor

Lobe Type Compressor


Designedtohaveconstant
volumedischargepressuresand
constantspeeddrivers.
LobeTypeCompressorscanbe
usedascompressorsorvacuum
pumps.

Lobe Type Compressor CS

Liquid Ring Compressor


Used to compress hazardous and toxic gases as well
as hot gases.
As the rotor turns, the fluid is centrifugally forced to
the outer wall of the elliptical casing. An air pocket
is formed in the center of the casing.
As the liquid ring compressor rotates, a small % of
the liquid escapes out the discharge port. Make up
water or seal liquid is added to the compressor
during operation. The liquid helps cool the
compressed gases.

Liquid Ring Compressor

Reciprocating Compressors
Most common type of compressors.Work by trapping and
compressing specific volumes of gas between a piston and a
cylinder wall.
The back and forth motion incorporated by a reciprocating
compressor pulls gas in on the suction (or intake) stroke and
discharges it on the other.
Spring-loaded suction and discharge valves open/close
automatically as the piston moves up and down in the
cylinder chamber.

C. S. VIEW OF RECI
COMPRESSOR

Axial Compressor
Gas flow is moves along the shaft (axially).
Rotating blades attached to a shaft push gases
over stationary blades called stators.
Multi-Stage axial compressors can generate very
high flow rates.
Axial compressors are usually limited to 16 stages
(due to temperature/material limitations)

Axial Compressor CS

Axial Compressor

Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal compressors accelerates the
velocity of the gases (increases kinetic
energy) which is then converted into
pressure as the gas flow leaves the volute
and enters the discharge pipe.
Deliver much higher flow rates than
positive displacement compressors.

Types Of Centrifugal Compressors


2 Types of Centrifugal Compressors
Single- Stage : Compress the gas once.
Use for high gas flow rates, low discharge
pressures

Multi- Stage : Take the discharge of one


stage and pass it to the suction of another
stage.
Use for high gas flow rates, high discharge
pressures

Single Stage CF Compressor

Multi Stage CF Compressor

SELECTION
105

PRESSURE psig

104

Centrifugal

Reciprocating

103
gh

g
j
10
10
2

Axial
10

Screw
10

102

103

104

dfg
CAPACITY cfm

105

106

PERFORMANCE CURVES
Centrifugal
Axial
Positive
Displacement

Producing Head

Vtip

Vhub

Gas Compression

Conversion: Velocity to Pressure


Pressure

Velocity

Impeller

Diffuser

Impeller

Stage

Diffuser

CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES

Casing
Impellers
Bearings Radial/Thrust
Balancing Drum
Inter stage Labyrinth
Seals
Coupling
Capacity Control

CASING
Horizontal Split
These casings are used for low & medium
working pressure (@30 bar).Two half casings
are joined along the horizontal center line & all
connections,nozzles,oil piping usually at bottom
casing.
Vertical Split (Barrel Type)
These casings are used for high working
pressure (@700 bar) and for certain gases
vertical split casing is preferred choice
(i.e.Ammonia,H2S,etc).

Horizontal Split
Horizontal
Split:By
removing upper
half of
casing,all
components are
accessible.

Horizontal Split-GCA1

Horizontal Split-GCKR-K45LP

Vertical Split (Barrel Type)


Vertical Split
(Barrel
Type):By
removing inner
barrel in axial
direction,all
components are
accessible.

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
ROTOR ASSEMBLY

Impellers
Increases Velocity Of Gas By Centrifugal Action.
Increased Gas Velocity Finally Converted In To
Pressure at Diffuser Outlet.Depending upon the
flow requirement 2D or 3D type impeller selected.
Cast impellers:Made by metal casting
Welded Impellers:Made by Welding/ Brazing
Three Dimensional impellers: Made by Milling
Operation

Impeller

Impeller
Cover
I-Seal
Hub
Blade

Blade Height

Centrifugal compression

Multi-Stage Compressor

Multistage Centrifugal-YORK

Diaphragms
Diaphragms are used to create stationary
gas flow path and consists of suction
vane,diffuser and return gas path.
The intermediate diffuser of diaphragm
converts velocity of gas to pressure,then the
return channel conveys gas to suction eye of
next impeller.

Diaphragms

Diaphragms

Side Loads

Bearings
A device that supports, guides, and reduces
the friction of motion between fixed and
moving machine parts.
Three major types:
Rolling-element bearings.
Sleeve bearings.
Hydrodynamic/Journal/Tilt Pads Bearings.

Rolling-element bearings

Rolling element, or anti-friction bearings, make use of


spherical or cylindrical rolling elements captured between
inner and outer rings.
The rolling elements support the load, and transmit rotation
by rolling, rather than sliding.

Rolling-element bearings

Ball bearings can operate at higher speeds (but with less load),
Roller bearings operate at lower speeds but with heavier loads.
Difference is due to point contact versus line contact.

Sleeve bearings
Ball bearing-Point
contact.
Roller bearing-Line
contact.
Sleeve bearing-No
contact due to oil
film between
bearing & shaft.

Fluid Film Bearing

Journal Bearings
The general principle is that a shaft rotates inside a
bearing bore slightly larger than the shaft diameter, and a
lubricant is supplied to the annular gap.
The portion of the shaft within the bearing is called the
journal.

Fluid Film Sleeve Bearing

Journal Bearings
The function of the journal bearings is to support
the rotor radially/centrally in the outer casing.
At rest, there is metal-to-metal contact between
the journal and the bearing, along the line of
contact.
Once rotation begins, a lubricant film develops
between the journal and the bearing.
As the speed increases, a wedge of lubricant
forms, supporting the shaft away from the bearing,
and preventing wear/contact.

Tilt Pad type Journal Bearing

RADIAL BEARINGS

Tilt Pad type Journal Bearing

To increase rotor
stability.
Better dampening
effect.
Better oil flow path.
Self aligning.

Journal Bearing

Journal & Thrust Bearings-GEOG

Thrust Bearings
Function of the Thrust bearing
is:
1.To keep the rotor in exact center
position in the casing to avoid
metal to metal contact axially.
2.To absorb residual axial thrust on
the rotor.

THRUST BEARINGS

THRUST BEARINGS

PROXIMITY PROBE ARRANGEMENT FOR


VIBRATIONS MEASUREMENTS

Bearing Temperature RTD

Balancing Drum

To Balance Axial Thrust Of Rotor by


labyrinth seal at Discharge end.

Axial Thrust Balancing

Thrust Load

Thrust Load

Inter-stage Labyrinth
To Prevent Inter
stage Gas
Passing/Leakage.

Inter stage Labyrinth Seal

Arrangement of Labyrinth Seals

Arrangement of Labyrinth Seals

Seals
Mainly Four Types of Seals:
Labyrinth Seal:Low pressure,for non flammable gas
(Air,N2,CO2).
Oil Film Seal:Gas must not leak to atmosphere,for
all Gas,seal oil supplied at slightly higher pr than
process gas.
ISO Carbon/Contact Seal:Gas must not allow to
leak,high reliable seal,for all Gas,low to high
pressure.
Dry Gas Seal:For Clean Gas Only.This type of seal
can controls leakage to atmosphere.

Labyrinth Seals

Labyrinth Seals

Oil Film Seal

Buffer Gas Oil Film Seal

Oil Flow to seal

Contact Seal

Contact Seal

Oil flow to contact seal

DRY GAS SEAL

Dry Gas Seal View

Gas Seal Operating Principal

Rotating Seat

Double Tandem Dry Gas Seal

Coupling
Followings are widely used Compressor
couplings:
Gear Type Coupling:Lubrication
required.More radial misalignment.
Disc Type Coupling: Offset will be
absorbed by the deformation of Disc.
Diaphragm Type coupling:Offset will be
absorbed by the deformation of Diaphragm.

Gear Type Coupling

Gear Type Coupling GCA1

Disc Type Coupling

Diaphragm Type coupling

Compressor Curve
1 0 0 % L o a d D e s ig n
C o n d itio n

S u r g e L in e

D e s ig n H e a d @ 1 0 0 %

HEAD

F L O W (P .R .V )

D e s ig n F lo w @ 1 0 0 %

Capacity Control
How can we control the capacity of the
compressor?
1.Pre-Rotation Vanes - Better Turndown
Inlet Volume Flow Control
2.Rotor Speed - Better Energy
Driver Speed Control
3.Pneumatic Control-Bypass System
Discharge Flow Control

Pre-Rotation Vanes (PRV)

PRV Control
Stonewall
Closed Vane Surge

Head

System Line
Open Vane Surge

Flow

PRV Control
Stonewall

Better Turndown

Head

System Line

Flow

Speed Control

110%

Better Power

Head

100%
90%

Flow

Efficiency Comparison

Speed Control

Eff.
PRV Control

Flow

Pneumatic Bypass Control


Bypass Valve

Suction Pressure
Control

Driver

Control

PRV ~ f(P or T)

Air Supply

Causes of Surge
Anything that affects the compressor Head
or Mass flow.
High discharge pressure
Low suction pressure
High suction temperature
Bypass valve not working
Low suction liquid level/flow

Surge Line

Anti Surge Control

S u r g e L in e

D e s ig n H e a d @ 1 0 0 %

1 0 0 % L o a d D e s ig n
C o n d itio n

.
M in im u m P R V O p e r a tin g
L in e

HEAD

F L O W (P .R .V )

D e s ig n F lo w @ 1 0 0 %

L O System

Lubricant Purposes

Prevent metal-to-metal contact


Remove or help dissipate heat
Protect metal surfaces from corrosion
Minimize Friction/wear
Protect parts from contamination

MONITORING

MACHINE TRAIN DIAGRAM - VIBRATION MONITORIN

FFT VIBRATION SPECTRUM

Cracked Gas Compressor Train