World Education System Japanese Education

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Importance of Education
Plato says: “The direction in which education starts a man will determine his future life.” Quaid-i-Azam Says: “You must concentrate on gaining knowledge and education. It is your foremost responsibility…….... Education is a matter of life and death for our country.” Allama Iqbal Says:

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Importance of Education

According to 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, Article 37-b “The State shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period”
Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Comparative Education
• Comparative education is a fully established academic field of study that examines education in one country (or group of countries) by using data and insights from the practices and situation in another country, or countries. • Factors of Comparative Education: Geographical, Linguistic, Racial, Economic, Philosophical, Religious, Moral, Humanism • Goals of Comparative education: – It can deepen our understanding of our own education and society – It can come as assistance to policymakers and administrators, and be a valuable component of teacher education.
Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Ideological Factor

Japan/Pakistan

Flag description: White with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center; the land of the rising sun.

Flag description: White crescent and star in the green field are symbols of Islam while white band symbolizes religious minorities).

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Geographical factor

Japan/Pakistan
Far East Asia 377,915 sqkm South Asia 796,096 sqkm

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Demographic factor

Japan/Pakistan
Population: 127,078,679 Population density:338/km Age structure: 0-14 years: 15-64 years: 65 years plus: Population: 176,242,949 Population density:209/km Age structure: 0-14 years: 15-64 years: 65 years plus:

13.5% 64.3% 22.2%

37.2% 58.6% 4.2%

Median age: 44.2y Urban population: 66% Life expectancy: 82.1y

Median age: 20.8y Urban population: 36% Life expectancy: 64.5y

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Racial & Religious Factor
Ethnic groups: Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%

Japan/Pakistan

Ethnic groups: Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.4%, Muhagir 7.5%, Balochi 3.5%, other 6.3% Religions: Muslim 95%, other 5% (includes Christian and Hindu) Languages: Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki, Pashtu, Urdu, Balochi, etc

Religions: Shintoism 84%, Buddhism 71%, (Some follow both) Christianity 2%, other 8% Languages: Japanese, etc

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Economic Factor

Japan/Pakistan
GDP: $4911 billion From Agriculture: From Industry: GDP - per capita: Labor force (Million): Agriculture: 4.4% Industry: 27.9% Unemployment rate: 1.5% 26.3% $34,100 66.5 GDP: $164.6 billion From Agriculture: From Industry: GDP - per capita:$2,500 Labor force (Million): Agriculture: 43% Industry: 20.3% Unemployment rate: 50.6 20.4% 26.6%

4%

13.6%

Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP ($172 billion approx) Literacy: 99% (male: 99%, female: 99%)

Education expenditures: 2.6% of GDP ($4 billion approx) Literacy: 50% (male: 64%, Female: 36%)

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Historical Background

Japan/Pakistan
1. Imperial System (6th to 16th Century) 2.Edo period (1603AD-1867AD) 3.Militarism (19th to Mid 20th Century) 4.Post World War II 5.1960 onwards 1.Advent of Islam (8th to 12th century) 2. Moghul period (13th to 18th century) 3.British period (19th to 20th century) 4. Post 1947 5. Present Scenario

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Diagram of Education Phases
• • • • • Japan (6+3+3+4 years) Pre School 2-4 y Elementary 6y Junior high 3y High school 3y University 4y
Higher Education at Universities/Research Institutes

• • • • • •

Pakistan (5+5+2+2+2 years) Pre School 2-4y Primary 5y Secondary 5y Higher Sec. 2y Deg. College 2y University 2y
Higher Education at Universities/Research Institutes

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Education system of Japan

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Education system of Pakistan

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Administration of education
In Japan (MEXT) is responsible for educational administration.
Education: Elementary to Higher Education, Lifelong Learning Policy, etc Culture: Cultural Affairs and International Affairs Sports: Sports promotion for youth development Science & Technology: Research Promotion Research & Development
MEXT: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

In Pakistan MOE and HEC is responsible for educational administration

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Teacher’s education Japan/Pakistan
• Most elementary school teachers are trained in four-year undergraduate courses All junior school teachers are trained in four-year undergraduate courses Higher secondary school teachers are trained postgraduate courses. Training of higher education teachers There is no certification system for teachers at institutions of higher education. • Primary Teaching Certificate (P.T.C) for primary school teachers (one year programme). Certificate of Teaching (C.T) for middle teachers (one year programme). Secondary school teachers are B.Ed Degree. The Master of Education Training of higher education teachers is conducted by HEC. There is a system of in-service training at all levels of education

• •

• •

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index used to rank countries by level of "human development", which usually also implies whether a country is developed, developing, or underdeveloped. It combines measures of life expectancy, education, and standard of living.

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

HDI Comparison (Selected Countries)
Country Japan USA Germany South Korea Malaysia China India Pakistan Literacy rate% 99 99 99 99 91.9 93.3 61 50 R&D Expenditure Researchers (% of GDP) (per Million) 3.40 2.60 2.50 3.20 0.70 1.40 0.88 0.20 (2004) 0.59 (2007) 5546 4651 3386 4162 299 926 140 75 162 HDI Rank 7 8 21 26 61 81 126 134

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Strengths

Japan/Pakistan
• Disciplined, accountable, committed educational administration • Student centered teaching learning process • Curriculum based on real life world issues • Research based innovative technologically advanced education
• Education based on rich culture and heritage • Education based on Islamic ideology • Motivated, creative, energetic, talented and innovative youth • Youthful Population

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Weaknesses

Japan/Pakistan
• Highly competitive environment • Limited number of youth • Politicized, non-committed administration • Non Uniform fragmented education system

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Recommendations
• Allocation of enhanced budget for education department. • Improvement, strengthening and rehabilitation of all existing educational institutions. • Strengthening of teaching faculty at all levels of education. • Introduction of integrated cohesive education system • Development of research culture at all levels of Education
Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

Questions
• 2 from right side • 2 from left side • Final Question from Dr.Farida

Dr. Nasir Mahmood, Saiqa Ishrat & Sadiq Merchant

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