Potentiometric titrations

:Lecture notes by Ms.M.Shalini ,Lecturer-Chemical Engg Adhiyamaan engineering .college

Principle

It mesures the change in potential , can be used for all kinds of titration : 1- acid base 2-redox 3-complexometry.

When it is used

It is used when the endpoints are very difficult to determine , either when:

1- very diluted solution. 2-coloured and turbid solution 3-absence of a suitable indicator

It is a regular titration but instead of the indicator we used the potentiometer Electrode will measure the PH of the media

instrument

Combined glass electrode ( double function electrode ( Potentiometer PH meter red ox ( mv) Magnetic stirrer 1-hot plate ( use the stirrer and make sure heat is off). 2- magnet capsule

Combined electrode

internal reference electrode with constant potential and not effected by potential of the solution. reference electrode very sensitive to potential of the solution ( Ag / Agcl)

Glass combined electrode
reference electrode electrode Ag/Agcl internal reference

salt bridge glass buffer) (reserved in a solution of 3 M KCL)

PH sensitive ( full of

objectives

Titration of a weak acid ( acetic acid ) against a strong base ( NAOH) Titration of a weak acid (acetic acid ) against a weak base (NH4OH)

Stock solution

  

Unknown acetic acid solution 0.1 N NaOH 0.1 N NH4OH

Experiment
 

Fill the burette with the standard titrant. Pipette 5 mls of acetic acid sample into 100 mls beaker and dilute to 50 by distilled water. Put a magnet stirrer and dip in the combined electrode ( make sure that the bulb of the electrode and the junction bridge are dipped completely under the water.

 

Switch on the stirrer and allow few second before reading the PH of the solution. start the titration by adding 0.5 mls of the titrant, stir well and then read the PH of the solution . Continue titration as before until near the end point ( ph change is grater than 0.2 ) , add small portion of the titrant ( 0.1mls) , stir well then take the PH reading.

Repeat until about 10 mls of the standard titration has been added. Plot the potentiometric curve ( PH value against ml of the titrant ) , determine the end point from the curve and calculate any required data.

pH

Potentiometric titration curve of 0.1 n NAOH against ? N acetic acid
PH at alkaline solution

PH at e.p

PH at acidic solution mls at e.p mls

Data to obtain from the :graph
  

The PH of the acetic acid solution. The PH of the alkaline solution . The equivalence point of the titration. The PH at the equivalence point.

calculation
The normality of the acetic acid from the formula: N X V = N-X V The concentration of acetic acid (in gm/l) as follow a - using the normality : c = Eq. wt x normality of acetic acid

B- using the equivalent factor c of acetic acid = ml( at end point )xf- x Fx 100 ml of the sample F= Eq. wt of a.a x N of the titrant 1000 Eq. wt = M.wt/no. of H CH3COOH

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