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CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

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2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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WAN Basics

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

What Is a WAN?
A network that serves users across a broad
geographic area
Often uses transmission devices provided by public
carriers (Pacific Bell, AT&T, etc.)
This service is commonly referred to as plain old
telephone service (POTS)
WANs function at the lower three layers of the OSI
reference model
Physical layer, data link layer, and network layer

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WAN Overview

Service
Provider

WANs connect sites


Connection requirements vary depending on
user requirements and cost
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What is a WAN?

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic


area and often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as
telephone companies. WAN technologies function at the lower three layers of the OSI
reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

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WAN connection types

Point-to-Point Links or Leased Lines


Circuit Switching
Packet Switching

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Point-to-Point Links or Leased


Lines

A point-to-point link is also known as a leased line because its


established path is permanent and fixed for each remote network reached
through the carrier facilities. It uses synchronous serial lines upto 45
Mbps
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Leased Line

One connection per physical interface


Bandwidth: 56 kbps1.544 Mbps
Cost effective at 46 hours daily usage
Dedicated connections with predictable
throughput
Permanent
Cost varies by distance
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Circuit Switching

Modem

WAN

Modem

Dedicated physical circuit established, maintained,


and terminated through a carrier network for each
communication session
Datagram and data stream transmissions
Operates like a normal telephone call
Example: ISDN
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Circuit Switching

Sets up line like a phone call. No


data can transfer before the endto-end connection is established.
Uses dial-up modems and ISDN. It
is used for low-bandwidth data
transfers.
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POTS Using Modem Dialup


Modem
Corporate Network
Telecommuters

Mobile
Users

CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

Basic
Telephone
Service

Server
Modem
Access Router

Widely available
Easy to set up
Dial on demand
Asynchronous transmission
Low cost, usage-based
Lower bandwidth access requirements
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Integrated Services Digital


Network (ISDN)
LAN
Server

ISDN
Telecommuter/AfterHours, Work-at-Home

BRI
2B+D

BRI/PRI
23B+D
30B+D (Europe)
Company Network

High bandwidth
Up to 128 Kbps per basic rate interface
Dial on demand
Multiple channels
Fast connection time
Monthly rate plus cost-effective,
usage-based billing
Strictly digital
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Packet Switching
Multiplexing

Modem

Demultiplexing

WAN

Modem

Network devices share a point-to-point link to


transport packets from a source to a destination
across a carrier network
Statistical multiplexing is used to enable devices to
share these circuits
Examples: ATM, Frame Relay, X.25
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Packet Switching
WAN switching method that allows you to share
bandwidth with other companies to save money.
Think of packet switching networks as a party
line. As long as you are not constantly transmitting data and are instead using bursty data
transfers, packet switching can save you a lot of
money. However, if you have constant data
transfers,then you will need to get a leased line.
Frame Relay and X.25 are packet-switching
technologies. Speeds can range from 56Kbps to
2.048Mbps.
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Frame Relay
Permanent, not dialup
Multiple connections per
physical interface
(permanent virtual circuits)
Efficient handling of
bursty (peak performance
period) data
Guaranteed bandwidth
(typical speeds are
56/64 Kbps, 256 Kbps,
and 1.544 Mbps)
committed information
rate (CIR)
Cost varies greatly by region

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Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)

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X.25
DTE

DTE
DCE

X.25

DCE

Very robust protocol for low-quality lines


Packet-switched
Bandwidth: 9.6 kbps64 kbps
Well-established technology;
large installed base
Worldwide availability
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode


(ATM)
Technology capable of transferring voice, video, and
data through private and public networks
Uses VLSI technology to segment data, at high
Data
Header
speeds, into units called cells
5 bytes of header information
48 bytes of payload
53 bytes total

48

Cells contain identifiers that specify the data stream


to which they belong
Primarily used in enterprise backbones or WAN links

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Cabling the WAN


Legend
FastEthernet/
Ethernet
ISDN
Dedicated
ISL
core_sw_b

core_sw_b
core_sw_a

Leased Line/
Frame Relay

ISDN Cloud

CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

Core_
Server

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WAN Physical Layer


Implementations
Physical layer implementations vary

Frame
Relay

PPP

HDLC

Cable specifications define speed of link

EIA/TIA-232
EIA/TIA-449
X.21 V.24 V.35
HSSI

CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

ISDN BRI (with PPP)


RJ-45
NOTE: Pinouts are
different than RJ-45
used in campus

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Differentiating Between
WAN Serial Connectors
Router connections

End user
device
DTE

CSU/
DSU

DCE
Service
provider

EIA/TIA-232

EIA/TIA-449

V.35

X.21

EIA-530

Network connections at the CSU/DSU

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Serial Implementation of
DTE versus DCE
Data Terminal Equipment

Data Communications Equipment

End of the users device


on the WAN link

End of the WAN providers


side of the communication facility
DCE is responsible for clocking

DCE

DTE
S

DTE

CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

DCE

Modem
CSU/DSU

S
S

S
S

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DCE

DTE

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WAN Terminating Equipment


Physical Cable Types

Router
To Corporate
Network

WAN Provider
(Carrier) Network

EIA/TIA-232
V.35
X.21
HSSI

Modem
Usually on the
Customers
Premises

DTE

Data Terminal Equipment


The Customers
Equipment
CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

DCE

Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment


The Service Providers
Equipment
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Serial Transmission
WAN Serial connectors use serial
transmission
Serial transmission uses one bit at time
over a single channel.
Parallel transmission can use 8 bits at a
time, but all WANs use serial
transmission.
Cisco Routers use a proprietary 60 pin serial
connector.
Connector at the other end of the cable
will depend on your service provider or
end device requirements.
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LAN/WAN Devices

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LAN/WAN Devices

Hubs
Bridges
Switches
Routers

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Hub
Device that serves as the center of a
star topology network, sometimes
referred to as a multiport repeater,
no forwarding intelligence

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Hubs
123

126

124

127

Hub
125

Data

Data

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128

Amplifies signals
Propagates signals through the network
Does not filter data packets based on destination
No path determination or switching
Used as network concentration point
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Hubs Operate at Physical


layer
Physical

All devices in the same collision domain


All devices in the same broadcast domain
Devices share the same bandwidth
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Hubs: One Collision Domain


More end stations means
more collisions
CSMA/CD is used

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Bridge
Device that connects and passes
packets between two network
segments.
More intelligent than hubanalyzes
incoming packets and forwards (or
filters) them based on addressing
information.

CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

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Bridge Example
123

126

Bridge

124

127

Hub

Hub

125
Segment 1

128
Corporate Intranet

Segment 2

More intelligent than a hubcan analyze incoming packets


and forward (or filter) them based on addressing information
Collects and passes packets between two network segments
Maintains address tables
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Switches
Use bridging technology to
forward traffic between ports.
Provide full dedicated data transmission
rate between two stations that are
directly connected to the switch ports.
Build and maintain address
tables called content-addressable
memory (CAM).

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SwitchingDedicated Media
Workstation

10-Mbps
UTP Cable
Dedicated

31

Switch

32

35
100 Mbps

33

34

100 Mbps

36

Corporate Intranet

Uses bridging technology to forward traffic (i.e.


maintains address tables, and can filter)
Provides full dedicated transmission rate between
stations that are connected to switch ports
Used in both local-area and in wide-area networking
All types availableEthernet, Token Ring, ATM
CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

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Switches and Bridges Operate


at Data Link Layer
Data Link

OR

Each segment has its own collision domain


All segments are in the same broadcast domain
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Switches

Switch
Memory

Each segment has its


own collision domain
Broadcasts are
forwarded to all
segments
CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

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Routers
Interconnect
Interconnect LANs
LANs and
and WANs
WANs
Provide
Provide path
path determination
determination
using
using metrics
metrics
Forward
Forward packets
packets from
from one
one
network
network to
to another
another
Control
Control broadcasts
broadcasts to
to the
the
network
network
CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

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Network Layer Functions (cont.)


1.1

1.2

1.0

4.0

1.3
E0

2.1

2.2

S0

S0

4.3
E0

4.1

4.2

Routing Table
NET INT Metric
1
S0
1
2
S0
0
4
E0
0

Routing Table
NET INT Metric
1
E0
0
2
S0
0
4
S0
1

Logical addressing allows for hierarchical network


Configuration required
Uses configured information to identify paths to networks
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Routers: Operate at the


Network Layer
Broadcast control
Multicast control
Optimal path
determination
Traffic management
Logical addressing
Connects to WAN
services

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Using Routers to Provide


Remote Access
Modem or ISDN TA
Telecommuter

Mobile User

Branch Office
Main Office
Internet
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Network Device Domains


Hub

Bridge

Switch

Router

Collision Domains:
1
4
Broadcast Domains:
1
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CSE: Networking FundamentalsWAN Basics

www.cisco.com

2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

6-41