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SALIENT FEATURES

OF INDIAN
NUCLEAR
REACTORS
Under the Guidance of:

Dr. B.M. Gangadharappa


M.Tech.(I.Str.), Ph.D

Professor
Dept. of Civil Engg.

Presented by:

Ajith Joseph
4JN11CV006

CONTENTS
1. Introduction
i. Nuclear Energy- The need
ii. Principle of Nuclear Power Production
iii. Nuclear reactor- types

2. The Salient Features


i. The Pre-stressing System
ii. Lift-off Operations
iii. Dynamo-meters

CONTENTS
iv.

3.

Sound Print

v.

Passive Heat Removal System (PHRS)

vi.

Corrosion monitoring of pre-stressing strands

vii.

Passive heat removal system structures

viii.

Fish protection structures

Fukushima Accident and KKNPP

NUCLEAR ENERGY- THE NEED


16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0

USA

CHINA

Electricity consumption (TWh)

JAPAN
Population

RUSSIA

INDIA

WORLD AVERAGE

Annual per capita consumption (KWh)

WHY NUCLEAR?
Most efficient
Sustainable
Cost effective
No obnoxious gases
Eco-friendly

pellet ~ 7g total; 0.3 inch dia., 0.5


inch long
Energy in 1
pellet

17,000 - Natural

gas

Fuel cost is low

807.3 Kg - Coal

Needs less area

564 L - Oil

Needs less fuel

THE PRINCIPLE AND FUEL


Einsteins mass energy

relation E=

Two types of isotopes in nature


U-238 and U-235 (ratio of 139:1)
Fuel enrichment

CONTINUED
Fission Heat Water Steam Turbine Electricity

WORKING

PRE-STRESSING SYSTEM
Unbonded post tensioning system
Very unique
First of its kind
Advantages
High efficiency
Better build
Corrosion protection
Monitoring
Replacement is possible

CONTINUED...
The pre-stressing force can be increased
Plant life extension
Lower locking force

Disadvantages
Higher cost
Maintenance and inspection
Extra labour
Strict supervision

LIFT-OFF OPERATIONS
What is Lift-off?
Direct method
Working
Importance
Adjust the strength
Special short stroke annular jack

DYNAMO-METERS
Pre-stressing force online
Between the trumplate and the anchor block
Two vertical and two horizontal tendons monitored
After threading but before tensioning
Friction test
Ultimate capacity of around 1500 tonnes

SOUND PRINT
Non-destructive surveillance method
Continuous monitoring
Focused investigations
Optimize the timing of repairs
More accurate maintenance budget

SOUNDPRINT

CORROSION MONITORING OF PRE-STRESSING


STRANDS
Corrosion status
Two type of sensors
Embedded corrosion potential sensor
Integrated corrosion monitoring sensor
Electro chemical principle
Electrical resistance technique
Embedded on selected strands
One for each quadrant

PASSIVE HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM


STRUCTURES
A unique feature
Passive air cooling system
Station Blackout
Prolonged residual heat removal
(upto 24hrs)

Drag
shaft
Drag shaft

System
ensures longterm removal
of reactor
core decay
heat in
absence of all
power
supplies
Atmospferic
Atmospheric
air
air

LOSS OF POWER
Steam
generator

Reactor

Atmospferic
air

Atmospheric
air

FISH PROTECTION STRUCTURES


The Fish Protection System houses:
The mesh screen
Air compressors
Oogee slabs
Narrow Channels

CONTINUED
Working

FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND KKNPP


At Fukushima
Northeast coast of Japan
6 units of BWR
11th March 2011 -An offshore earthquake (magnitude-9), epicenter ~ 130km
14m high tsunami waves hit after ~ 45min of earthquake
EDGs failed
Units-1&2 ; 3&4 DGs flooded

CONTINUED
Tsunamigenic fault lines

CONTINUED
At KKNPP
EDGs can not be flooded (above 7.44m MSL)
Uninterrupted cooling (PHRS)
Molten core - core catcher
Air tight pre-stressed concrete building
Secondary or outer containment
Passive Catalytic Hydrogen re-combiners

FUKUSHIMA (THEN) & KKNPP


Design difference

FUKUSHIMA (NOW)

CONCLUSION
Geographic Location
Additional safety
Passive Systems
Advanced and superior design

REFERENCES
Dr D W Cullington & D MacNeil Continuous acoustic monitoring of grouted posttensioned concrete bridges, Berkshire, England
Updation of environmental impact assessment study for proposed 3,4,5 &6 units of
kknpp, kudankulam, Engineers limited
K.C. Purohit and M.I. Joy (2008) Project overview, salient features and
construction management at KKNPP
S. Mohan (2008) KKNPP- An overview and special features
Aalami, B.O. 1994, Unbonded and Bonded Post-Tensioning Systems in Building
Construction, PTI Technical Notes Issue 5. Post-Tensioning Institute, Phoenix, AZ.

THANK