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DASAR ILMU TANAH

Materi 10: Klasifikasi Tanah

KLASIFIKASI TANAH

Klasifikasi

Tanah

Usaha

membeda-bedakan
mengelompokkan tanah berdasarkan sifatsifatnya

Tujuan
mengetahui

sifat dan ciri tanah pada masingmasing kelompok tanah (kelas tanah)
sehingga memudahkan pengguna tanah
untuk mengelola tanah tersebut agar dapat
berproduksi secara optimal

Alami/taksonomi:berdasarkan
alami tanah tanpa dihub.
pengunaannya

Klasifikasi

sifat2
dgn

- Taksonomi Tanah (USDA)

Teknikal: berdasarkan tujuan khusus


dgn memilih ciri2 ttt yg pgrhi
kemampuan dan penggunaannya
--Klasifikasi

Kemampuan Lahan USDA


-- Klasifikasi Kesesuaian Lahan FAO

GeneralPrinciplesofNaturalClassificationSystems:
The system should express general or universal
relationships that exist in nature. One should be able
to understand, remember, generalize, or predict from
the information obtained.
The scheme should be based on characteristics or
attributes of things classified as related to their
genesis. It should place similar things together on the
basis of their properties.
It is technically impossible to use all properties of
the items being classified. Existing knowledge must
be used to determine which properties are most
important

Why Classify Soils?


Organize knowledge to enable investigation
and communication (structure/organization)
Provide framework for establishing
relationships among soils and their
environment (scientific)
Establish groupings for interpretations
(utilitarian)
Optimal use
Hazard/limitation/remediation assessment
Potential productivity
Framework for technology transfer/information
dissemination

Tanahbermacam-macam

Klasifikasi Tanah di Indonesia


Sejak

th 1988 hanya gunakan


sistem Taksonomi Tanah.
Sebelum 1988 ada 3 :
-

Pusat Penelitian Tanah (PPT)


FAO/UNESCO
Taksonomi Tanah.

Taksonomi Tanah (USDA)


dikembangkan

oleh Soil Survey Staff


(USDA), tahun 1975
Terus

ada

direvisi 2ed, 1999

6 kategori yaitu Order, Suborder,


Great group,
Subgroup, Family dan
Series.

Categories in ST:

Order key soil properties resulting from major soilforming processes (epipedons, subsurface horizons,
materials, characteristics)
Suborder key soil properties that are major controls on
soil-forming processes, e.g., soil climate (most orders);
kinds of salts (Aridisols); kinds of soil parent materials
(Entisols); degree of decomposition (Histosols); presence
or absence of cryoturbation (Gelisols)
Great Group key soil properties that are additional
controls on soil genesis (diagnostic horizons)
Subgroup central concept (Typic), intergrades,
extragrades
Family properties important to plant growth (texture,
mineralogy, soil temperature regime, etc.)
Series soil morphology

Katego
ri

Nama

Kategori

Nama

Phylum

Pteridophyta

Order

Alfisol

Kelas

Angiosperma
e

Sub-order

Udalf

Subkelas

Dicotyledone
ae

Greatgrou Hapludalf
p

Order

Rosales

Sub-group Aquic Hapludalf

Family

Leguminosea
e

Family

Aquic Hapludalf, berlempung


halus, Campuran, Aktif,
Isohipertermik

Genus

Trifolium

Seri

Lape

Species

T. repens

(Phase)

Berbatu

Differentiating Characteristics in
ST:
Diagnostic epipedons
Diagnostic subsurface horizons
Other diagnostic soil characteristics
Soil moisture and temperature
regimes

1. Epipedon
horison

penciri yg terbentuk di
permukaan tanah.
tidak sinonim dg horizon A
dapat mencakup sebagian
horizon B.

EPIPEDON
Surface horizons
Influenced strongly by

biochemical and
geochemical processes
Correspond with A, E, and
sometimes upper B horizons
Important in classifying soils

EPIPEDON

Histik:
Bahan organik (BO) tinggi (>75%), tebal 2040cm.
Mollik:
BO >1%, warna gelap dg value dan kroma <3
(lembab) dan value < 5 (kering), tebal >18cm, KB
>50%.
Melanik:
mirip Mollik, tetapi miliki sifat tanah andik
Umbrik:
seperti molik tetapi KB <50%.
Anthropik: seperti molik, tetapi mengandung >1500 ppm P2O5
larut dalam 1% as sitrat.
Ochrik:
warna terang (value dan kroma lembab >3), BO
<1% atau kerassangat keras dan masif.
Plaggen:
horizon buatan, akibat penggunaan pupuk kandang yg
terus menerus, tebal >50cm, berwarna hitam.
Folistik:
tanah atas BO, jenuh < 30 hari

Horison Penciri Bawah

Agrik:
horizon iluviasi yg terbentuk krn pengaruh
pengolahan tanah shg terjadi akumulasi sejumlah
debu, liat,
dan
humus.
Albik:
horison berwarna pucat (E) dg value lembab >5.
Argillik:
horison penimbunan liat; minimal mengandung liat
>1.2 kali lebih banyak daripada kandungan liat di
atasnya.Terdapat selaput liat.
Kalsik:
horizon yg mengandung karbonat sekunder
(CaCO3 atau MgCO3) tinggi, tebal >15cm.
Petrokalsik: horizon kalsik yang mengeras.
Kambik:
indikasi lemah adanya argillik atau spodik, tapi tidak
memenuhi syarat kedua horizon tersebut.

Horison Penciri Bawah (lanjutan)

Gipsik :
banyak mengandung gipsum (CaSO4) sekunder.
Petrogipsik: horizon gipsik yg mengeras.
Natrik :
horizon argillik yg banyak mengandung Na
Oksik :
horizon bertekstur agak kasar, KTK <16 me/100g liat,
tebal >30cm.
Salik:
banyak mengandung garam sekunder mudah larut,
tebal >15cm.
Sombrik :
seperti umbrik, gelap, terjadi iluviasi humus tanpa Al,
tidak terletak di bawah horizon albik.
Spodik :
horizon iluviasi seskuioksida bebas dan BO.
Sulfurik :
horizon yg mengandung sulfat, pH ,3.5, tdpt karatan
jarosit.
Plasik:
padas tipis tersementasi senyawa. Fe, Mn dan BO

TAKSONOMI TUMBUHAN vs TAKSONOMI TANAH


Katego
ri

Nama

Kategori

Nama

Phylum

Pteridophyta

Order

Alfisol

Kelas

Angiosperma
e

Sub-order

Udalf

Subkelas

Dicotyledone
ae

Greatgrou Hapludalf
p

Order

Rosales

Sub-group Aquic Hapludalf

Family

Leguminosea
e

Family

Aquic Hapludalf, berlempung


halus, Campuran, Aktif,
Isohipertermik

Genus

Trifolium

Seri

Lape

Species

T. repens

(Phase)

Berbatu

Soil Taxonomy"
Degree of Weathering and B Horizon Development
Little
Slight
Moderate
Large
Extreme
Entisols

Aridisols
Inceptisols

Alfisols
Spodosols

Ultisols

Mollisols
Oxisols
Soils Defined by Special Constituent Materials
Andisols
Histosols

Volcanic Ash
Peat, Organic Matter

Vertisols
Gelisols

Self-Mixing Clay Soils


Soils on Permafrost

ALFISOL
The central concept of Alfisols

is that of soils that have an


argillic, a kandic, or a natric
horizon and a base saturation
of 35% or greater.
They typically have an ochric
epipedon, but may have an
umbric epipedon. They may
also have a petrocalcic horizon,
a fragipan or a duripan.

ANDISOLS

The central concept of


Andisols is that of soils
dominated by short-rangeorder minerals.
They include weakly
weathered soils with much
volcanic glass as well as more
strongly weathered soils.
Hence the content of volcanic
glass is one of the
characteristics used in defining
andic soil properties

ARIDISOL
Aridisols is that of soils that are
too dry for mesophytic plants to
grow. They have either:
(1) an aridic moisture regime
and an ochric or anthropic
epipedon and one or more of
the following with an upper
boundry within 100 cm of the
soil surface: a calcic, cambic,
gypsic, natric, petrocalcic
petrogypsic, or a salic horizon
or a duripan or an argillic
horizon, or
(2)A salic horizon and
saturation with water within 100
cm of the soil surface for one
month or more in normal years.

ENTISOLS
The central concept of

Entisols is that of soils that


have little or no evidence of
development of pedogenic
horizons.
Many Entisols have an ochric
epipedon and a few have an
anthropic epipedon. Many
are sandy or very shallow.

GELISOLS

The central concept of Gelisols is that


of soils that have permafrost within
100 cm of the soil surface and/or have
gelic materials within 100 cm of the
soil surface and have permafrost
within 200 cm.
Gelic materials are mineral or organic
soil materials that have evidence of
cryoturbation (frost churning) and/or
ice segeration in the active layer
(seasonal thaw layer) and/or the
upper part of the permafrost.

HISTOSOLS
The central concept of Histosols is

that of soils that are dominantly


organic. They are mostly soils that
are commonly called bogs, moors,
or peats and mucks.
A soil is classified as Histosols if it
does not have permafrost and is
dominated by organic soil materials.

INCEPTISOLS

The central concept of


Inceptisols is that of soils of
humid and subhumid regions
that have altered horizons that
have lost bases or iron and
aluminum but retain some
weatherable minerals. They do
not have an illuvial horizon
enriched with either silicate clay
or with an amorphous mixture
of aluminum and organic
carbon.
The Inceptisols may have many
kinds of diagnostic horizons, but
argillic, natric kandic, spodic
and oxic horizons are excluded.

MOLLISOLS
The central concept of Mollisols is

that of soils that have a dark


colored surface horizon and are
base rich. Nearly all have a mollic
epipedon.
Many also have an argillic or
natric horizon or a calcic horizon.
A few have an albic horizon.
Some also have a duripan or a
petrocalic horizon.

OXISOLS
The central concept of Oxisols is

that of soils of the tropical and


subtropical regions. They have
gentle slopes on surfaces of great
age. They are mixtures of quartz,
kaolin, free oxides, and organic
matter.
For the most part they are nearly
featureless soils without clearly
marked horizons. Differences in
properties with depth are so gradual
that horizon boundaries are
generally arbitrary.

SPODOSOLS

The central concept of Spodosols is


that of soils in which amorphous
mixtures of organic matter and
aluminum, with or without iron, have
accumulated. In undisrurbed soils
there is normally an overlying eluvial
horizon, generally gray to light gray
in color, that has the color of more or
less uncoated quartz.
Most Spodosols have little silicate
clay. The particle-size class is mostly
sandy, sandy-skeletal, coarse-loamy,
loamy, loamy- skeletal, or coarsesilty.

ULTISOLS
The central concept of Ultisols is

that of soils that have a horizon


that contains an appreciable
amount of translocated silicate
clay (an argillic or kandic
horizon) and few bases (base
saturation less than 35 percent).
Base saturation in most Ultisols
decreases with depth.

VERTISOLS
The central concept of

Vertisols is that of soils that


have a high content of
expending clay and that have
at some time of the year deep
wide cracks.
They shrink when drying and
swell when they become
wetter.