EMOTIONS

INTENSE FEELINGS THAT ARE DIRECTED AT SOMEONE OR SOMETHING

• Myth of Rationality: - Scientific Management
..to create organizations that were Emotion-Free

• Emotions are Disruptive

• AFFECT: covers broad range of Feelings that comprises both
Emotions and Moods

• MOODS:

….Feelings that tend to be less Intense than Emotions and that often Contextual Stimulus.
Mood relatively sustain/remains little longer than Emotion which might affect for a while only.

EMOTIONS and MOODS
• Emotions are Reactions to a Person: Reactions to an Event: • Moods are NOT usually DIRECTED at a Person or Event But Emotions can turn into Moods when you LOSE FOCUS on the Person, Event or Object that started the Feeling.

EMOTIONS and MOODS
• Unlike Moods, Emotions tend to be more clearly Revealed with Facial Expressions ?????? • Emotions are more Action-Oriented thus we might take immediate Action • Moods are more Cognitive- cause us to Think • Emotions and Moods can mutually Influence each other. How??????

BASIC SET OF EMOTIONS
• Six universal Emotions: Anger, Fear, Sadness, Happiness, Disgust, Surprise Other emotions are part of these major
categories of Emotions

• Continuum: Happiness—Surprise—Fear— --Sadness—Anger--Disgust • Philosopher Rene Decartes identified Six Passions: Wonder, Love, Hatred, Desire, Joy, Sadness

1. THE BIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS

SOME ASPECTS OF EMOTIONS

- Emotions originate in the Brain's Limbic system - People tend to be in Happy state when Limbic system is relatively INACTIVE e.g., the negative emotions- Anger or Guilt Dominate over Positive emotionsJoy or Happiness.

Some Aspects of Emotions
• Moderately Depressed people have more Active Limbic System • Women tend to have more Active Limbic systems than Men

2. INTENSITY
• People Vary in their Inherent Ability to EXPRESS EMOTIONAL INTENSITY • Some people never show their feelings others seem to be always in emotional state • Jobs make Different Demands on our Emotions e.g., Surgeon, Judge, Announcers at Sporting Events, Lawyers

Some Aspects of Emotions
3. FREQUENCY and DURATION
Whether an employee can successfully meet the emotional demands of a given job depend on; • • What Emotions need to be displayed and their Intensity and also

How Frequently and How Long they are needed to make an Effort.

Emotions and RATIONALITY
• Are Rationality and Emotions in Conflict with one another • One perspective suggest that demonstration of emotions is likely to make us seem WEAK, BRITTLE, and IRRATIONAL. • But research Disagrees and endorses that Emotions are actually CRITICAL to Rational Thinking

Emotions and RATIONALITY
• Thus we must have the ability to experience emotions to be Rational. • Example: Phineas Gage- railroad workerDue to an Accident suffered brain injury and - Lost his ability to experience Emotions but performed well on Cognitive Ability tests – But with the passage of time he lost his ability to reason

Emotions and RATIONALITY
- Thus the key to decision making is to employ both Thinking and Feeling in one’s decision.

Functions of Emotions
• Charles Darwin- “ The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals”. • He said that Emotions are Useful because they motivate people to engage in actions important for Survival, e.g., -Disgust motivates us to avoid dangerous or harmful things, such as rotten food -Excitement motivates us to take on situations in which we require energy and initiative- taking a new career

EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY • Emotions exist in people because they have useful purpose • Jealousy; mates may feel it to increase the chance that their genes pass on the next generation
• ANGER- a person showing anger when he is cheated serves warning for others not to repeat the same behavior

• Boss’ s. harassment to his secretary- her anger made her sue him and won million dollars • But it is hard to know whether this perspective is Valid for all the time

MOODS: POSITIVE and NEGATIVE
• Emotions can not be Neutral. Being neutral is being nonemotional • When we group emotions into positive and negative Categories, they become MOOD STATES because we are now looking at them more Generally.

• POSITIVE MOOD

a mood dimension consisting of Positive Emotions such as Excitement, Cheerfulness at High End and Boredom, Tiredness at Low End

• NEGATIVE MOOD

It consists Nervousness, Stress, Anxiety at higher end and Relaxation, Tranquility at the Low End

• Positive and Negative Mood Affect our Perceptions and Perception affect the Behavior e.g., an unhappy flight attendant…. • People think five times more about the events that created the strong negative emotions than the positive one’s. • Positivity Offset: at zero input- when nothing in particular is going on most individuals experience a mildly positive mood - so for most people positive moods are more common than negative moods

• PERSONALITY: Personality predisposes people to experience certain moods and emotions - Some people feel guilt and anger more
readily than others do. - Some people may feel Calm and Relaxed no matter whatever the situation is. - Microsoft CEO Bill Gates is known for his relatively distant, unemotional, analytical nature. He rarely displays Anger.

Sources of Moods

• Emotions differ in their Intensity, but people also differ in how predisposed they are to experience emotions intensely.

Sources of Moods
Day of the week and Time of the Day
• People tend to be in worst moods( Highest negative mood and Lowest positive mood) early in the weekdays and in their best moods (…………………) late in the week, especially on the weekends. • People are generally in low spirits early in the morning. During the course of the day our moods tend to improve and then decline in the evening. - levels of positive mood tend to peak around the halfway point between Waking and Sleeping

Sources of Moods
• WHETHER:
Evidence suggests that whether has little effect on mood - Illusory Correlation

• STRESS:

Stress affects emotions and moods.

• SOCIAL ACTIVITIES:

They increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood -They also have Long-term health benefits

Sources of Moods
• SLEEP:
Sleep quality affects mood. Less and Poor Sleep quality, puts people in a bad mood is because it impairs decision making and makes it difficult to control emotions. -It also impairs people’s job satisfaction the next day mostly because people feel FATIGUED, IRRITABLE and Less Alert.

Sources of Moods
• EXERCISE: Exercise enhances people’s positive mood. • AGE: Emotional experience tends to improve with Age so that as we get older, we experience fewer negative emotions • GENDER: Women show greater emotional expression than men and experience emotions more intensely. -Women are better at reading nonverbal cues than the men. -Men and Women are Socialized in different ways -Women have innate ability to read others and present their emotions than do men Because Women have a greater need for social approval

EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS
• Every organization defines boundaries that identify which emotions are acceptable and the degree to which employees may express them. • Cultures also set boundaries on the expression of emotions

EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS
1. Organizational Influences
There is no single emotional “set” that all organizations worldwide seek in their employees. - In developed countries“bias against intense emotions” -- both negative and positive intense emotions are unacceptable with the exception of special occasions

EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS
2. Cultural Influences:
In different cultures the Frequency of experiencing emotions and their Intensity Vary to some degree. Interpretation of Emotions by the people all over the world is done in the Same way. However there are cultures where certain emotions value more than others. Norms for expression of emotions Differ across cultures. E.g., Muslim women smile at men….

EMOTIONAL LABOR
It is an employee’s expression of organizationally Desired emotions during Interpersonal Transactions at work.

Felt Emotions: an Individual’s actual
emotions

Displayed Emotions: those emotions that the
organization Requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job.

EMOTIONAL LABOR
• SURFACE ACTING Displaying fake emotions requires us to Suppress the emotions we really Feel. The individual has to “ACT” to keep her/his job. • DEEP ACTING
Trying to modify one’s true inner feelings.

• Surface Acting deals with one’s Displayed emotions and Deep Acting deals with one’s Felt emotions.

EMOTIONAL LABOR
• REWARDS ON EMOTIONALLY DEMANDING JOBS V/S COGNITIVE DEMANDING JOBS - Emotionally demanding jobs are only rewarded well when they are already Cognitive demanding, e.g., the job of a Lawyer

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