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FLUID FLOW

IDEAL FLUID
BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE
How can a plane fly?
How does a perfume spray work?
What is the venturi effect?
Why does a cricket ball swing or a baseball curve?

web notes: lect6.ppt

flow3.pdf

Daniel Bernoulli (1700 1782)

Floating ball

A1

v1
Low speed
Low KE
High pressure

A1

A2

v2
high speed
high KE
low pressure

v1
Low speed
Low KE
High pressure

p large

p large

p small

v small

v large

v small

In a serve storm how does a house loose its roof?


Air flow is disturbed by the house. The "streamlines" crowd around the top
of the roof faster flow above house reduced pressure above roof
than inside the house room lifted off because of pressure difference.

Why do rabbits not suffocate in the burrows?


Air must circulate. The burrows must have two entrances. Air flows across
the two holes is usually slightly different slight pressure difference
forces flow of air through burrow.
One hole is usually higher than the other and the a small mound is built
around the holes to increase the pressure difference.
Why do racing cars wear skirts?

VENTURI EFFECT

high
pressure
(patm)

low pressure

velocity increased
pressure decreased

force

high speed
low pressure

force
What happens when two ships or trucks pass alongside each other?
Have you noticed this effect in driving across the Sydney Harbour Bridge?

artery

Flow speeds up at
constriction
Pressure is lower
Internal force acting on
artery wall is reduced

External forces causes


artery to collapse

Arteriosclerosis and vascular flutter

p2

x2

v2
time 2

p1

x1
y2

A1

y1

v1
time 1

A2

Bernoullis Equation
for any point along a flow tube or streamline

p + v2 + g y = constant

Dimensions
p [Pa] = [N.m-2] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]
v2

[kg.m-3.m2.s-2] = [kg.m-1.s-2] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

gh

[kg.m-3 m.s-2. m] = [kg.m.s-2.m.m-3] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

Each term has the dimensions of energy / volume or energy density.


v2

KE of bulk motion of fluid

gh

GPE for location of fluid

pressure energy density arising from internal forces within


moving fluid (similar to energy stored in a spring)

p2

x2

v2
time 2

p1

x1
y2

A1

y1

v1
time 1

A2

Mass element m moves from (1) to (2)

Derivation of Bernoulli's equation

m = A1 x1 = A2 x2 = V where V

= A1 x1 = A2 x2

Equation of continuity A V = constant


A1 v1 = A2 v2

A1 > A2 v1 < v2

Since v1 < v2 the mass element has been accelerated by the net force
F1 F2 = p1 A1 p2 A2
Conservation of energy
A pressurized fluid must contain energy by the virtue that work must
be done to establish the pressure.
A fluid that undergoes a pressure change undergoes an energy
change.

K = m v22 - m v12 = V v22 - V v12


U = m g y2 m g y1 = V g y2 = V g y1
Wnet = F1 x1 F2 x2 = p1 A1 x1 p2 A2 x2
Wnet = p1 V p2 V = K + U
p1 V p2 V =
V v22 - V v12 + V g y2 - V g y1
Rearranging
p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2
Applies only to an ideal fluid (zero viscosity)

Ideal fluid

Real fluid

Flow of a liquid from a hole at the bottom of a tank

(1)

Point on surface of liquid

y1
v2 = ? m.s-1
y2

(2) Point just outside hole

Assume liquid behaves as an ideal fluid and that Bernoulli's


equation can be applied
p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2
A small hole is at level (2) and the water level at (1) drops
slowly v1 = 0
p1 = patm

p2 = patm

g y1 = v22 + g y2
v22 = 2 g (y1 y2) = 2 g h
v2 = (2 g h)

h = (y1 - y2)

Torricelli formula (1608 1647)

This is the same velocity as a particle falling freely through a


height h

How do you measure the speed of flow for a fluid?

(1)
(2)
F

v1
= ?
h
m

Assume liquid behaves as an ideal fluid and that Bernoulli's equation


can be applied for the flow along a streamline
p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2
y1 = y2
p1 p2 = F (v22 - v12)
p1 - p2 = m g h
A1 v1 = A2 v2

v2 = v1 (A1 / A2)

m g h = F { v12 (A1 / A2)2- v12 } = F v12 {(A1 / A2)2 - 1}

v1

2 g h m
A
F 1
A2

C
yC

A
yA

D
How does a siphon
work?
How fast does the
liquid
come out?

yB

Assume that the liquid behaves as an ideal fluid and that


both the equation of continuity and Bernoulli's equation can
be used.
Heights: yD = 0
yB
yA
yC
Pressures: pA = patm = pD
Consider a point A on the surface of the liquid in the
container and the outlet point D.
Apply Bernoulli's principle to these points
Now consider the points C and D and apply Bernoulli's
principle to these points
From equation of continuity vC = vD
The pressure at point C can not be negative

pA + vA2 + g yA = pD + vD2 + g yD
vD2 = 2 (pA pD) / + vA2 + 2 g (yA - yD)
pA pD = 0
vD = (2 g yA )

yD = 0

assume vA2 << vD2

pC + vC + g yC = pD + vD + g yD
vC = vD
pC = pD + g (yD - yC) = patm +

g (yD - yC)

The pressure at point C can not be negative


pC 0

and yD = 0

pC = patm - g yC 0

yC patm / ( g)

For a water siphon


patm ~ 105 Pa

g ~ 10 m.s-1

yC 105 / {(10)(103)} m
yC 10 m

~ 103 kg.m-3

A large artery in a dog has an inner radius of 4.0010-3 m. Blood flows


through the artery at the rate of 1.0010-6 m3.s-1. The blood has a
viscosity of 2.08410-3 Pa.s and a density of 1.06103 kg.m-3.
Calculate:
(i) The average blood velocity in the artery.
(ii) The pressure drop in a 0.100 m segment of the artery.
(iii) The Reynolds number for the blood flow.
Briefly discuss each of the following:
(iv) The velocity profile across the artery (diagram may be helpful).
(v) The pressure drop along the segment of the artery.
(vi) The significance of the value of the Reynolds number calculated in
part (iii).
Semester 1, 2004 Exam question

Solution
radius R = 4.0010-3 m
volume flow rate Q = 1.0010-6 m3.s-1
viscosity of blood = 2.08410-3 Pa.s
density of blood = 1.06010-3 kg.m-3

(i) Equation of continuity: Q = A v


A = R2 = (4.0010-3)2 = 5.0310-5 m2
v = Q / A = 1.0010-6 / 5.0310-5 m.s-1 = 1.9910-2
m.s-1
(ii) Poiseuilles Equation
Q = P R4 / (8 L)

L = 0.100 m

P = 8 L Q / ( R4)
P = (8)(2.08410-3)(0.1)(1.0010-6) / {()(4.0010-3)4} Pa
P = 2.07 Pa
(iii) Reynolds Number
Re = v L /
where L = 2 R (diameter of
artery)
Re = (1.060103)(1.9910-2)(2)(4.0010-3) / (2.084103

(iv) Parabolic velocity profile: velocity of blood zero at sides of artery


(v) Viscosity internal friction energy dissipated as thermal energy
pressure drop along artery
(vi) Re very small laminar flow (Re < 2000)
Flow of a viscous newtonain fluid through a pipe
Velocity Profile
Cohesive forces
between molecules
layers of fluid slide past
each other generating
frictional forces
energy dissipated (like
rubbing hands together)

Parabolic velocity
profile

Adhesive forces between fluid and surface fluid


stationary at surface