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IDEAL FLUID

BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE

How can a plane fly?

How does a perfume spray work?

What is the venturi effect?

Why does a cricket ball swing or a baseball curve?

flow3.pdf

Floating ball

A1

v1

Low speed

Low KE

High pressure

A1

A2

v2

high speed

high KE

low pressure

v1

Low speed

Low KE

High pressure

p large

p large

p small

v small

v large

v small

Air flow is disturbed by the house. The "streamlines" crowd around the top

of the roof faster flow above house reduced pressure above roof

than inside the house room lifted off because of pressure difference.

Air must circulate. The burrows must have two entrances. Air flows across

the two holes is usually slightly different slight pressure difference

forces flow of air through burrow.

One hole is usually higher than the other and the a small mound is built

around the holes to increase the pressure difference.

Why do racing cars wear skirts?

VENTURI EFFECT

high

pressure

(patm)

low pressure

velocity increased

pressure decreased

force

high speed

low pressure

force

What happens when two ships or trucks pass alongside each other?

Have you noticed this effect in driving across the Sydney Harbour Bridge?

artery

Flow speeds up at

constriction

Pressure is lower

Internal force acting on

artery wall is reduced

artery to collapse

p2

x2

v2

time 2

p1

x1

y2

A1

y1

v1

time 1

A2

Bernoullis Equation

for any point along a flow tube or streamline

p + v2 + g y = constant

Dimensions

p [Pa] = [N.m-2] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

v2

gh

v2

gh

moving fluid (similar to energy stored in a spring)

p2

x2

v2

time 2

p1

x1

y2

A1

y1

v1

time 1

A2

m = A1 x1 = A2 x2 = V where V

= A1 x1 = A2 x2

A1 v1 = A2 v2

A1 > A2 v1 < v2

Since v1 < v2 the mass element has been accelerated by the net force

F1 F2 = p1 A1 p2 A2

Conservation of energy

A pressurized fluid must contain energy by the virtue that work must

be done to establish the pressure.

A fluid that undergoes a pressure change undergoes an energy

change.

U = m g y2 m g y1 = V g y2 = V g y1

Wnet = F1 x1 F2 x2 = p1 A1 x1 p2 A2 x2

Wnet = p1 V p2 V = K + U

p1 V p2 V =

V v22 - V v12 + V g y2 - V g y1

Rearranging

p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2

Applies only to an ideal fluid (zero viscosity)

Ideal fluid

Real fluid

(1)

y1

v2 = ? m.s-1

y2

equation can be applied

p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2

A small hole is at level (2) and the water level at (1) drops

slowly v1 = 0

p1 = patm

p2 = patm

g y1 = v22 + g y2

v22 = 2 g (y1 y2) = 2 g h

v2 = (2 g h)

h = (y1 - y2)

height h

(1)

(2)

F

v1

= ?

h

m

can be applied for the flow along a streamline

p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2

y1 = y2

p1 p2 = F (v22 - v12)

p1 - p2 = m g h

A1 v1 = A2 v2

v2 = v1 (A1 / A2)

v1

2 g h m

A

F 1

A2

C

yC

A

yA

D

How does a siphon

work?

How fast does the

liquid

come out?

yB

both the equation of continuity and Bernoulli's equation can

be used.

Heights: yD = 0

yB

yA

yC

Pressures: pA = patm = pD

Consider a point A on the surface of the liquid in the

container and the outlet point D.

Apply Bernoulli's principle to these points

Now consider the points C and D and apply Bernoulli's

principle to these points

From equation of continuity vC = vD

The pressure at point C can not be negative

pA + vA2 + g yA = pD + vD2 + g yD

vD2 = 2 (pA pD) / + vA2 + 2 g (yA - yD)

pA pD = 0

vD = (2 g yA )

yD = 0

pC + vC + g yC = pD + vD + g yD

vC = vD

pC = pD + g (yD - yC) = patm +

g (yD - yC)

pC 0

and yD = 0

pC = patm - g yC 0

yC patm / ( g)

patm ~ 105 Pa

g ~ 10 m.s-1

yC 105 / {(10)(103)} m

yC 10 m

~ 103 kg.m-3

through the artery at the rate of 1.0010-6 m3.s-1. The blood has a

viscosity of 2.08410-3 Pa.s and a density of 1.06103 kg.m-3.

Calculate:

(i) The average blood velocity in the artery.

(ii) The pressure drop in a 0.100 m segment of the artery.

(iii) The Reynolds number for the blood flow.

Briefly discuss each of the following:

(iv) The velocity profile across the artery (diagram may be helpful).

(v) The pressure drop along the segment of the artery.

(vi) The significance of the value of the Reynolds number calculated in

part (iii).

Semester 1, 2004 Exam question

Solution

radius R = 4.0010-3 m

volume flow rate Q = 1.0010-6 m3.s-1

viscosity of blood = 2.08410-3 Pa.s

density of blood = 1.06010-3 kg.m-3

A = R2 = (4.0010-3)2 = 5.0310-5 m2

v = Q / A = 1.0010-6 / 5.0310-5 m.s-1 = 1.9910-2

m.s-1

(ii) Poiseuilles Equation

Q = P R4 / (8 L)

L = 0.100 m

P = 8 L Q / ( R4)

P = (8)(2.08410-3)(0.1)(1.0010-6) / {()(4.0010-3)4} Pa

P = 2.07 Pa

(iii) Reynolds Number

Re = v L /

where L = 2 R (diameter of

artery)

Re = (1.060103)(1.9910-2)(2)(4.0010-3) / (2.084103

(v) Viscosity internal friction energy dissipated as thermal energy

pressure drop along artery

(vi) Re very small laminar flow (Re < 2000)

Flow of a viscous newtonain fluid through a pipe

Velocity Profile

Cohesive forces

between molecules

layers of fluid slide past

each other generating

frictional forces

energy dissipated (like

rubbing hands together)

Parabolic velocity

profile

stationary at surface

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