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Overview of the

Internet and the


World Wide Web

The Internet
The

worldwide network of all computers (or


networks of networks) that communicate
using a particular protocol for routing data
from one computer to another
A network of networks, joining many
government, university and private
computers together and providing an
infrastructure for the use of email, hypertext
documents, file archives, databases and
other computational resources
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ARPA (1967)
Advanced

Research Project Agency of


the US Department of Defense
Sponsored a conference which many
ARPA-funded graduate students were
brought together
ARPA rolled out blueprints for networking
the main computer systems of ARPAfunded universities and research
institutions
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ARPA
Computers

were connected with


communication lines with speed of 56 Kbps
Connection was then over telephone lines at
110 bits per second
Talked about communicating with UNIVAC
1108 at the University of Utah for
calculations relating to their research on
computer graphics
Implemented it and called it ARPAnet (1972)
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ARPAnet
Enabled

researches to communicate
easily via electronic mail (e-mail)

1973 75% of traffic is email

Network

was designed without


centralized control
If one portion fails, there are still other
available paths

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TCP/IP (1974)
Combination

of TCP and IP
Current architecture of the internet
Enables computers to talk to each
other
1982

Internet is born using the TCP/IP standard

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Internet Use
Originally

limited to universities and


research institutions
Military adopted the technology
Later, the government allowed for
commercial purposes

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Internet Use
Resentment of the research and military
communities Net will be saturated with
many users
Opposite occurred
Different businesses enhanced and developed
the Internet presence
Generated fierce competition among
communication carriers and hardware and
software suppliers to meet increased
infrastructure demand

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Bandwidth
Bandwidth

increased while hardware


costs plummeted
Bandwidth information-carrying
capacity of communication lines
Internet helped in the economic growth
of many industrialized countries,
especially US

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Size of the Internet


Estimated

500 million nodes


More than 2 billion users
Internet

handles more than an exabyte


(1.074 billion gigabytes) per day

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Who Controls the Net?


Internet

has no owners, censors, bosses,


board of directors, or stockholders
In principle, any computer or network
that obeys the protocols (which are
technical) can be an equal player

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Internet Backbone
Network

of high-capacity routers and


fiber-optic communications links that
provides the main routes for data traffic
across the internet
Links and routers are maintained by
network service providers

AT&T, British Telecom, Sprint, Verizon, etc.

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Internet Service Providers


NSPs

supply internet connection to


internet service providers

company that offers internet access to


individuals, businesses and smaller ISPs

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Protocols, Addresses and


Domains

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TCP/IP
Primary

protocol suite responsible for


message transmission on the internet
TCP

breaks a message into packets

IP

addresses packets so they can be routed


to their destination

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Connection Speed
On

average, data arrives at its


destination in less than a second after
sent
Latency

elapsed time for data to make a round trip


from point a to B and back to A

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Connection Speed

Packet internet groper (Ping)

Sends a signal to a specific internet


address and waits for a reply
When reply arrives, Ping reports that the
computer is online and displays the
elapsed time for the round trip message
Also displays lost packet in transmission
when signal interference or network
congestion overwhelms servers and routers
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Connection Speed
Traceroute

(Tracert)

Records a packets path in addition to its


round-trip speed

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Connection Speed
Connection

speeds advertised by ISPs is


the amount of data that travels between
the subscribers computer and an ISP
within a given period of time
Measured in Kbps or Mbps
Slow dial-up 56 Kbps
Broadband 10 Mbps

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Upstream and
Downstream
Upstream

speed

rate of data that is uploaded from


computer to Internet

Downstream

speed

rate of data downloaded to clients


computer

ISPs

limit these speeds to make sure


everyone gets and equal share of the
bandwidth
Upstream is usually slower than
downstream

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Symmetric and Asymmetric


Connection
Symmetric

internet connection

upstream and downstream speeds are the


same

Asymmetric

internet connection

upstream and downstream speeds differ

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Connection Options
Fixed

internet access
Portable internet access
Mobile internet access

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Fixed Internet Access


Dial-up

connection

uses voiceband modem and telephone


lines to transport data
cost is cheap but access speed is very low
Asymmetrical
44

Kbps download
33 Kbps upload

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Fixed Internet Access


Dial-up

connection

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Fixed Internet Access


Digital

Subscriber Line (DSL)

high-speed, digital, always-on, Internet


access technology that runs over
standard phone lines
One of the fastest internet connection
that is affordable
Has a local telephone switching station

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Fixed Internet Access


Digital

Subscriber Line (DSL)

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Fixed Internet Access


Cable

Internet Service

means of distributing always-on


broadband internet access over the same
infrastructure that offers cable television
service
Can offer 12 Mbps up to 50 Mbps
download and 2 Mbps up to 10 Mbps for
upload

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Fixed Internet Access


Cable

Internet Service

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Fixed Internet Access


Satellite

Internet Service

means of distributing always-on, highspeed asymmetric internet access by


broadcasting signals to and from a
personal satellite dish
Uses a geostationary satellite to transmit
data
Speed averages 1.0 to 1.5 Mbps for
download and 100 to 256 Kbps for upload
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Fixed Internet Access


Satellite

Internet Service

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Fixed Internet Access


Fixed

Wireless Service

Designed to offer internet access to


homes and businesses by broadcasting
data signals over large areas
MAN
Well-known fixed wireless standards is
WiMAX (Wireless Microwave Access)

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Fixed Internet Access


Fixed

Wireless Service

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access

Portable Internet Access

Defined as the ability to move your internet


service from one location to another
Light and compact enough to easily carry
You have to remain in one spot when it comes
time to use it
Services include
Wi-Fi
portable satellite
portable WiMAX

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Mobile

Internet Access

Offers a continuous internet connection


Concept is similar to cellular phone
service that allows you to move freely
within coverage areas
Includes
Wi-Fi
Mobile

WiMAX
Cellular broadband/data service
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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Wi-Fi

hotspot

Area in which the public can access a WiFi network that offers internet service
Aside from home networks, Wi-Fi is also
used for public networks operated by
merchants, hotels, schools and
municipalities
Many devices are Wi-Fi enabled already
notebooks,

netbooks, laptops, smartphones


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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Portable

and Mobile WiMAX

WiMAX can be used as a portable


technology because internet access is
available anywhere within a towers
coverage

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Portable

satellite service

Portable satellite dish is mounted on the


vehicle
Transmits and receives signals from a
geostationary satellite

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Cellular

data service

Uses cellphone technology to access


internet

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Cellular

1G analog and offered few features


2G digital technology and added support
for basic data transport in the form of text
messages
1G

data service speeds:

and 2G require voiceband modem

3G offered today by cellular service


providers
EDGE,

W-CDMA, HSPA, HSPA+

4G designed for faster access


LTE

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Cellular

data service

Most cellular service providers offer data


service plan for accessing the internet
Less expensive plans typically limit the
amount of data you can send and receive

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Portable and Mobile Internet


Access
Cellular

data service

Five ways to access mobile broadband


with data service plan
using

a handheld PDA or smartphone


using a mobile broadband card in a PC
using a mobile broadband enabled
computer
using the cellphone as a modem
using a cellphone as a wireless hotspot
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WWW
World Wide Web
Allows computers to locate and view
multimedia-based documents

Texts, graphics, animations, audios or videos

Introduced by Tim Berners-Lee of CERN in


1989
Invented the Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML) based on the Standard Generalized
Markup Language a standard for business
data interchange

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WWW
A

complex, international, cross platform,


cross language, cross cultural mesh of
servers, clients, users, databases, and
quite a few artificial intelligences all
talking, working, searching, viewing,
accessing, downloading

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WWW
A

collection of files that reside on computers


called web servers
Web servers are connected to each other
through the internet
A web browser is used to view web
resources

Mozilla Firefox
Microsoft Internet Explorer
Apple Safari
Google Chrome
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Web Browsers
It

is advised to update browsers


regularly if an update version is
available
Web pages depend on new HTML
features supported by latest browser
versions
Out-of-date browsers may show errors
on the page or show no errors but
displays lacking page elements
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HTML
Hypertext

Markup Language

set of specifications for creating


documents that a browser can display as
a webpage
authors markup documents by inserting
HTML tags that specify how the document
should appear when displayed on a
computer screen or printed

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W3C
World

Wide Web Consortium


(www.w3.org)
Founded by Tim Berners-Lee in 1994
Devoted in developing nonproprietary,
interoperable technologies for the web
Main goal is to make the web universally
accessible

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W3C
Has

representatives from Apple,


Microsoft, Adobe, Sun, Google, Oracle,
IBM, and many more.
Produced many popular technologies
used by many popular software
companies including HTML, XML, Web
Service Protocol, PNG, etc.

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Viewing a Webpage
Suppose

you want to view


www.xu.edu.ph
A server contains all the files of the XU
website
The browser will look for a file named
index.html

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Viewing a Webpage
CLIENT

(4) Computer
running a web
browser
accessing a
website displays
the webpage

(1)
(1) Browser
Browser
connects
connects to
to a
a server
server
and
and requests
requests a
a
page
page
(3)
(3) Server
Server sends
sends
back
back the
the requested
requested
page
page

SERVER

(2) Server
processes the
request
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URL
Uniform

Resource Locator
The address that connects you with a
web resource
Found in the address bar which is
usually at the top of the screen

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URL
http://www.mysite.com/index.html
http:// hypertext transfer protocol

www world wide web

language computers use to communicate over


the web
the body of information connected by the
cables and computers of the Internet

mysite domain name

the structured, alphabetic-based, unique name


for a computer on a network
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URL
http://www.mysite.com/index.html
com top level domain

index file name

gives an idea where the document is stored


could be a folder within a website

html hypertext markup language

the language of the web to format


documents
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Communicating over the


Internet
Computers

and servers have IP

addresses

32-bit number usually expressed as an


octet

Example:

the IP of www.xu.edu.ph is
203.177.182.16.
To access the XU website, you look for
http:// 203.177.182.16
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Communicating over the


Internet
However,

it is difficult to remember IP
addresses
In solution, websites have domain
names which are readable counterparts
of IP addresses
Domain Name Servers (DNS) translate
domain names into IP addresses

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Domain Name System


Purpose

of naming

addresses are used to locate objects


names are easier to remember
DNS provides mapping from names to
resources of several types

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DNS Hierarchy
Can

be represented by a tree
Root and top-level domains are
administered by Internet Corporation for
Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

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DNS Hierarchy
Below top-level
domain,
administration
of name space
is delegated to
organizations
Each
organization can
delegate further

(root)

TOP LEVEL
DOMAINS

org
ed
u
admu

gov

co
m

xu
elear
n

cs
moodl
e

ccsresearc
h

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DNS vs. File System


C:

com
org
xu

ph
edu
adm
u

Program
Files

net
com

google

net
yahoo

Domain Name System

Adobe
inde
x

Windows
diagnostic
s

schedul
ed

Temp
System
32

driver
s

Windows File System


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Top-Level Domains
Last

part of an internet domain name

group of letters that follow the final dot of


any domain name
facebook.com
gcflearnfree.org

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Top-Level Domains
Categories

Generic Top-Level Domains most


common
.com,

.org, .net, .info

Generic Restricted Top-Level


Domains similar to generic top-level
domains, only eligibility is intended to be
restricted and ascertained more
stringently
.biz,

.name, .pro
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Top-Level Domains
Categories

Sponsored Top-Level Domains


proposed and sponsored by private
agencies or organizations that establish
and enforce rules restricting the eligibility
to use the top-level domain
.edu,

.gov, .tel, .aero, .asia, .cat, .coop,


.int, .jobs, .mil, .mobi, .museum, .travel

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Country Code Top-Level


Domains
Used

for specific country or dependent


territory
Two letters long

.ph Philippines
.us United States
.au Australia
.uk United Kingdom
.jp - Japan
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Evolution of the Web


Technology Web 1.0
First

generation web
WYSIWYG
Composed of static pages
One-way broadcasting only owner of
the site can publish information

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Evolution of the Web


Technology Web 2.0
Second

generation web
Interactive and dynamic Web
People can collaborate and share
information online
Refers to the transition from static HTML
to dynamic HTML
Also regarded as social web

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Web 2.0 Applications and


Solutions

W3C updated HTML to XHTML 2.0

Contributing vendors did not warmly


accept the standard

Subsequent standard was introduced


called HTML5 by the Web Hypertext
Application Technology Working Group
XHTML died in the vine and major
technology companies pledge to support
HTML5, some are using it already

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Web 2.0 Applications and


Solutions
All web browsers adopted the HTML4
standard
Microsoft was the weakest company in
supporting Web HTML standards

Until the release of Internet Explorer 8

New web browsers (Safari, Opera, Chrome,


Firefox) and new web-enabled devices
(iPhone, Android, Pre, Blackberry) agrees that
HTML5 is the next standard, and they are
already supporting it
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Evolution of the Web


Technology Web 3.0
Future

Web Technology intelligent web


Semantic Web, personalization,
intelligent search and behavioral
advertising
Initiative was inspired by Berners-Lee of
a more flexible, integrated, automatic
and self-adapting web, providing a
richer and more interactive experience
for users
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The Semantic Web


The

Semantic Web will bring structure


to the meaningful content of Web
pages, creating an environment where
software agents roaming from page to
page can readily carry out sophisticated
tasks for users. Tim Berners-Lee

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Review Questions
What

is the difference between the


INTERNET and the WORLD WIDE WEB?
Compare the three versions of the
web technology (Web 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0)
How does your web browser access a
website?
How would you respond if someone asks
you where in the world is the central
computer where the internet is stored?
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