introduction to analog communication course

© All Rights Reserved

8 views

introduction to analog communication course

© All Rights Reserved

- Design of Domestic Power Line Carrier Communication
- Basic Electronics Interview Questions and Answers ##
- 123
- Chap 1
- DC Digital Communication PART7
- Introduction to Electronics Communication
- Bit Angle Modulation
- OE&MS
- EE20-S15-HW07_SOL
- EGI-INS_Part_4.pdf
- 10.1.1.2.6368
- tutorial
- Si8410
- GATE 2012 ECE
- FM Modulation
- ch02
- Computer Networks BSCIT 6th Sem
- Chapter 01
- Modulation Index
- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

You are on page 1of 71

Introduction

Communication System

is to transform the message signal produced by the source of

information into a form suitable for transmission over the

channel.

so as to reconstruct a recognizable form of the original

message signal and to deliver it to the user destination.

transmitter and the receiver. The transmission medium may be

a cable, an optical fiber, or free space if using radio or infrared

communication.

data files.

signal from an information source to a user destination.

form suitable for transmission over the channel.

modulation, which involves varying some parameters of a

carrier wave in accordance with the message signal.

signal after propagation through the channel using a process

known as demodulation.

Modulation

Baseband

message

signal

m(t)

Modulator

c(t)

Carrier

s(t)

Passband

(modulated)

signal

Primary Communication

Resources

In a communication system, there are two primary resources

to be employed:

1. Transmitted Power: The transmitted power refers to the

average power of the transmitted signal.

2. Channel Bandwidth: The channel bandwidth is defined as the

band of frequencies allocated for the transmission of the

message signal.

resources as efficiently as possible.

1 dBm = 10 log10 (P / 10-3) where P is in Watts

1 dBmV = 20 log10 (V / 10-3) where V is in Volts

(b) signal with finite power.

Classification of Signals

1. Continuous-time and Discrete-time Signals

2. Analog and Digital signals

3. Periodic and Aperiodic signals

4. Energy and Power signals

5. Deterministic and Probabilistic signals

A signal that is specified for every value of time t is a Continuous-time

signal

A signal that is specified only at discrete values of time t is a Discretetime Signals

A signal whose amplitude can take on any value in a continuous range is

an analog signal.

A digital signal is one whose amplitude can take on only a finite number

of values.

Examples of signals: (a) analog and continuous time; (b) digital and continuous time;

(c) analog and discrete time; (d) digital and discrete time.

Communication Systems

Lathi

Copyright 2009 by Oxford

University Press, Inc.

g(t) = g(t+T) for all t

The smallest value of T that satisfies the periodicity condition is the

period of g(t).

A signal is Aperiodic if it is not periodic.

A signal with finite energy is an energy signal

A signal with finite power is a power signal.

g (t )

dt

1

g (t ) dt

T T

P lim

A signal whose description is known completely, either a

mathematical form or a graphical form, is a deterministic signal.

If a signal is known only in terms of probabilistic description

such as mean, variance and so on is a random signal.

(t ) 0, t 0

(t )dt 1

x(t ) (t ) x(0) (t )

x(t ) (t T )

x(T ) (t T )

Operations on signals

2x(t)

0.5x(t)

Y=x(t-2)

g , x g . x cos

x Length (norm) of a vector x as

x, x

g, x

x, x

1

x

g, x

To find C12

t2

f (t ). f

1

C12

(t )dt

t1

t2

t1

f 2 (t ) 2 dt

N

g , x g i xi

i 1

Inner product of two real valued signals g(t) and x(t) both

defined over the interval t1 t 2 as

t2

t1

x(t )

x(t ), x(t )

component in g(t) of the form of sint.

For complex valued signals, the inner product is modified into

t2

g (t ), x(t ) g (t ) x * (t )dt

t1

t2

E x x(t ) dt

2

t1

interval t1 ,t 2

g (t ) c.x(t )

e(t ) g (t ) c.x(t )

t2

E e g (t ) cx(t ) dt

t1

u v (u v)(u v ) u v 2 u * v uv *

*

t2

*

g

(

t

)

.

x

(t )dt

t1

t2

x(t ) 2 dt

t1

t2

t2

x (t ) x

1

t1

*

2

(t )dt 0

or

*

x

1 (t ) x2 (t )dt 0

t1

If signals x(t) & y(t) are orthogonal over an interval and if z(t) =

x(t) + y(t)

Ez Ex E y

Correlation

The amount of similarity between two vectors/signals are

measured by Correlation Coefficient.

The Correlation Coefficient between two vectors is given by

cos

g..x

g x

1 n 1

g (t ) x(t )dt

Eg Ex

1 n 1

Correlation Functions

The application of correlation to signal detection in a RADAR

unit.

Let the transmitted & reflected pulses be denoted by g(t) and z(t)

similarity between g(t) and z(t) then the coefficient is zero

The correlation is zero because pulses are nonoverlapping in time

The integral will yield zero even when pulses are identical but

with relative time shift.

Cross-Correlation

To avoid the difficulty we compare the received pulse z(t)

shifted by .

The modified integral is called the Cross-Correlation function

of the two complex signals.

gz ( )

g (t ) z (t )dt g (t ) z (t )dt

Auto-Correlation

gz ( )

g (t ) g (t )dt

Consider a three-dimensional Cartesian vector space described

by three mutually orthogonal vectors

g c1 x1 c 2 x 2

g c1 x1 c 2 x 2 c3 x3

ci

g , xi

xi , xi

1

xi

g , xi

Basis vectors

The vectors x1 , x 2 , x3 represent a complete set of orthogonal

vectors in three dimensional space. Any vector in this space

can be represented in terms of these three vectors. Such

vectors are known as BASIS vectors.

The choice of basis vectors is not unique. The set of basis

vectors corresponds to a particular choice of coordinate

system.

A set of vectors are orthogonal if

xm , xn

0, m n

2

xm , m n

Orthogonality of a signal set x1 (t ), x 2 (t ), x3 (t ),....x N (t ) over a time

domain is defined as

t2

0, m n

t xm (t )xn (t )dt En , m n

1

t of N mutually orthogonal set as

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c 2 x 2 (t ) c3 x3 (t )........... c N x N (t )

t2

Cn

g (t ).xn (t )dt

*

t1

t2

t1

x n (t ) 2 dt

e N (t ) g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c 2 x 2 (t ) c3 x3 (t )........... c N x N (t )

If the orthogonal basis is complete, then the error signal

energy converges to zero.

t2

lim e N (t ) dt 0

t1

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c 2 x 2 (t ) c3 x3 (t )........... c N x N (t )

N

g (t ) c n x n

n 1

The set of exponentials e jnw t (n 0,1,2............) are orthogonal

over any interval of duration.

0

jnw0t

(e

jmw0t

T0

0, m n

) dt

T0, m n

*

exponentials as shown below

f (t ) F0 F1e

..... F1e

jw0t

jw0 t

F2 e

F 2 e

Fn

j 2 w0t

j 2 w0t

................. Fn e

......... F n e

f (t )(e

jnw0t *

jnw0t

) dt

jnw0t

(e

) dt

jnw0t

jnw0t

.........

nf.

2. The fundamental frequency is fo = 1/T corresponding to n = 1 All

other frequency components are multiples of this frequency.

3. The amplitude spectrum |Xn| of a real signal is an even function of

frequency, whereas the phase spectrum is odd.

figure.

The Fourier transform for the non periodic signal g(t) is given by

the integral

G( f ) g(t)e j 2ft dt

g(t) G( f )e j 2ft df

g(t)

G( f ) Fg(t)

G( f)

g(t) F 1G( f )

Rectangular Pulse

Exponential Pulse

Example: (Linearity)

g(t) e a tu(t) ,

a0

eatu(t) eatu(t)

Distortionless Transmission

shapes within a multiplicative constant

distortionless.

y (t ) kx(t t d )

FT

Y ( w) X ( w) H ( w)

H ( w) ke jwtd

H ( w) k

h ( w) jwt d

d h ( w)

t d ( w)

dw

Y ( w) kX ( w)e jwt d

response for distortionless transmission.

Ideal filters allow distortionless transmission of a certain band of

frequencies and suppress all the remaining frequencies.

If the i/p is a signal x(t) band limited B Hz, the o/p is x(t) delayed by

H ( f ) rect ( f / 2 B)e

j 2ft d

td

a) Ideal low-pass filter frequency response and (b) its impulse response.

One practical approach to filter design is to cut the tail of h(t) for t < 0.

The resulting causal impulse response is

h (t ) h(t )u (t )

Linear Distortion

of either the magnitude or phase or both.

transfer function H(f). Find the o/p y(t).

(1 k cos Tf )e j 2ft d f B

H( f )

0

y (t ) g (t t d )

k

g (t t d T ) g (t t d T )

2

For nonlinear channel the input and output are related by

some nonlinear equation as

y (t ) a o a1 x(t ) a 2 x 2 (t ) a3 x 3 (t ) ................... a k x K (t ) .........

x k (t )is kB Hz.

Hence the o/p spectrum spreads well beyond the input spectrum

and it contains new frequencies which are not there in the i/p

signal.

The i/p x(t) and the o/p y(t) of a nonlinear channel related as

y (t ) x(t ) 0.000158 x 2 (t ) Find the o/p signal y(t) and its spectrum

Y(f), x(t) = 2000sinc(2000*pi*t)

(a) desired (input) signal spectrum

(b) spectrum of the unwanted signal (distortion) in the

received signal

Multipath transmission

A multipath transmission occurs when a transmitted signal

arrives at the receiver by two or more paths of different delays.

Let us consider the case of only two paths, 1) one with unity

gain and delay t d 2) gain with and delay t t d

H ( f ) e j 2ft d * e j 2f (td t )

sin 2ft

H ( f ) 1 2 cos 2ft exp ( j 2ft d tan

)

1 cos 2ft

Fading Channels

The time variations of the channel properties arise because of

semi periodic and random changes in the propagation

characteristics of the medium.

Hence the effective channel transfer function varies semi

periodically and randomly , causing random attenuation of the

signal. This phenomenon is known is FADING.

- Design of Domestic Power Line Carrier CommunicationUploaded byjeb13
- Basic Electronics Interview Questions and Answers ##Uploaded byPranav Toor
- 123Uploaded byanon-613606
- Chap 1Uploaded bytarasimadhu
- DC Digital Communication PART7Uploaded byARAVIND
- Introduction to Electronics CommunicationUploaded byFerlene Reyes
- Bit Angle ModulationUploaded bybenjamind82
- OE&MSUploaded byTrangAlice
- EE20-S15-HW07_SOLUploaded byEvan Williams
- EGI-INS_Part_4.pdfUploaded byversine
- 10.1.1.2.6368Uploaded bysiroos_afs
- tutorialUploaded byRam Kapur
- Si8410Uploaded bylizxcano
- GATE 2012 ECEUploaded bytututi22
- FM ModulationUploaded byDelinger Tomin
- ch02Uploaded byRony Kurnia
- Computer Networks BSCIT 6th SemUploaded byTeena Dubey
- Chapter 01Uploaded byJohnNeilBibera
- Modulation IndexUploaded byJash
- Quadrature Amplitude ModulationUploaded byThasnimFathima
- EDT 4608 - Week 02Uploaded bySiti Aisyah
- Digital Communication LabUploaded bynitin
- communication systems mcas reviewUploaded byapi-319102793
- IIJCSV3I6002.pdfUploaded byMisbah Sajid Ch
- Chapter 4 Digital Mod_Part 1Uploaded bykate w
- Descritivo tUploaded byPankaj Singh Rawat
- Unit- XUploaded bysmrutirekha
- Homework 1Uploaded byRizaFkSiiRisofie
- V to VI Sem Syllabus-207 Credits 2015-16 Admiited Students-1Uploaded byA
- Qam ModifiedUploaded byShou Sangli

- CMC QNA UNIT IIIUploaded bySachin Chimmalgi
- Stick Diagram and LayoutUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Unit-4 ACSUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Rf Short NotesUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Surface ClutterUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- HyperbolicUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- UNIT-IIUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Bct Midii SolutionsUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Fcmc Exp1 Vinod Kumar Mogadala Jan 13 2012Uploaded byVinod Mogadala
- VINODDIJKSTRA prog2Uploaded byVinod Mogadala
- vinodbellmanfoldprog3Uploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Fm ReportUploaded byVinod Mogadala

- 25 Watt Mosfet AmplifierUploaded byCarlos Alberto Neto
- Harmonics and Power Factor - The Effects of Changes to IEEE 519–1992 to 2014.pdfUploaded byAndrea Cétarez
- CWF-1 Operators ManualUploaded byAntonioPallone
- RFM_PDD Day 4Uploaded byQuddus Okele
- Harman-Kardon Owner's Manual - Go + Play II (English)Uploaded byastuig
- Chapter 0003Uploaded byDr Ravi Kumar A V
- RMAA 6.0 User's GuideUploaded byhenrykylaw
- Protection of distribution transformer by using SCADAUploaded bybharathdaruru204
- An 7135 _PanasonicUploaded byUnfinished_projects
- IJISET_V3_I2_38Uploaded byAnd
- Proper PCB LayoutUploaded byRameshKumar Reddy
- load pullUploaded bymarymary14
- 1985 Ingress Sources and SolutionsUploaded byHungNguyenViet
- Looperator Manual EnglishUploaded byНиколай Стрижов
- Transmission Line MCQUploaded byHimanshu Haldar
- Chapter M.docxUploaded byViko Vauzul Adzim
- AD7476_7477_7478 (1)Uploaded byAhmed Abd El Razek
- REVO-MAN-ENUploaded byxxxvision01
- Arpology Manual.pdfUploaded byFersh Jarringtone
- Sample and HoldUploaded byweightless765590
- 5956-4362Uploaded byEugenCarti
- Mitsumi Japan Mm1336b DatasheetUploaded byAntonionero11
- Info pasa bajosUploaded bysergio_741
- Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Measurement.pdfUploaded bygearhead1
- Op Amps for MEMS Microphone Preamp CircuitsUploaded byalex
- Sony SA-W3800 Service ManualUploaded byIonescuTeodora
- YAMAHA SU200_E.pdfUploaded bymarnel_16242
- GNS430W_GNS400WSeriesMaintenanceManual.pdfUploaded byJEFFREY DEE MAURY NORIEGA
- Charles H. Cox III Analog Optical Links Theory and Practice Cambridge Studies in Modern OpUploaded byAG Octavio
- Class AB AmplifierUploaded byJohn Brix Balisteros

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.