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Topics in this unit:

What is an Organisation?
Agricultural extension organization
Agricultural extension organizational structures

What is an Organization?
Organization has been defined as a specific configuration of structure,
people, task and techniques
Structure: This describes the form of departments, hierarchy and
People: It refers to the skills, attitudes and social interactions of the
members of the organization.
Tasks: These are goals that individuals and the organization intends to
Techniques: It refers to the methods/approaches used to perform tasks.

Agricultural Extension Organization:

An agricultural extension organization is therefore a
formalized planned structure of roles or position directed
towards achieving extension activities.

Organizational Structure

Organizational structure refers to the institutional

arrangements and mechanisms for mobilizing human,
physical, financial and information resources at all levels
of a system.

Organizational structure is a plan that shows the

organization of work and the systematic
arrangement of work.

It is the arrangement and interrelationship of

component parts and positions in an organization.

Function of an Organizational structure

It gives guideline on
the division of work into activities
Linkage between different functions
Hierarchy: Authority Structure and Authority relationships
Coordination within the environment

Characteristics of an organizational structure


Design of an organizational structure

An organization can be structured in different ways, based on their
objectives. Its structure determines its mode of operation and
Factors to consider in the design of an organizational structure.
Clarity: people goal, task, functions, relationship and
information sources should be well defined.
Understanding: it should provide the people of how their work
fit into the organization
Decentralization: The structure of an organization should
encourage discussions/ interaction and decision making at the
lower rung of the organizational ladder
Stability and adaptability: It should be flexible enough to adapt
to changing environmental condition nevertheless it should be
stable during unfavourable environmental conditions

Types of organizational structure

Organizations structure can either be simple or complex traditional
(bureaucratic) or modern (organic) depending on strategies, strategic
decisions within the organization, nature of the environment and at
times needs of the organization
Traditional Organizational Structure

Modern organization designs

Adhocracy types.

The Bureaucratic Organization

The traditional bureaucratic organizational structure is mechanistic
highly complex, highly formalized and centralized, its a type of
structure common in a large organization. It is characterised by a

high degree of control to ensure standard performance and the

use of standard methods and procedures to perform task.
Classical organizational structure
In a simple centralized organizational structure, power,
decision making authority and responsibility for goal setting
are vested in one person at the top. This structure is usually
found in small and single-person-owned organizations. The
manager is versatile and coordinates all activities. Such
organization have two hierarchical levels

Bureaucratic Organizational structure

Project design
Project design is also called the team or task force type. It is
used to coordinate across departments for temporary,
specific and complex problems which cannot be handled by
a single department. This design facilitates inputs from
different areas.