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STATISTICS

Judith Leano R.N.

Correlation Analysis Use to measure the degree of linear relationship or association between two variables. To determine the nature of the correlation. a graph of the data is plotted on a scatter diagram .

Correlation Coefficient Positive Negative  Negative correlation is present when  Positive correlation is present when high values in one variable are associated with high values of another variable or vice versa.00 .00 high values on one variable are associated with low values of the other variable or vice versa.  A perfect negative correlation is represented by a .  A perfect positive correlation is represented by a + 1.1.

• • Linear relationship is present Level of measurement of the data for the two variables are either in interval or ratio scale . and the most widely used measure of correlation is the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient or simply Pearson r.Formula for Pearson r: Correlation coefficients are r= n ∑ xy – (∑x) (∑y) √ [ n∑x². Basic assumption underlying the use of the Pearson r.(∑x)²] [n ∑y²-(∑y)²] Where x = the observed data for the independent variable y = the observed data for the dependent variable n = size of the sample r = the degree of relationship between x&y computed.

i.e.r² df = n – 2 where r = the obtained Pearson r value n = sample size .To know whether the obtained correlation coefficient is significant. The formula is as follows: t =r √ n-2 1. a t – test for testing the significance of r could be used. that the real correlation exist or that the obtained r is not merely due to sampling variation.

A random sample of 10 computer students in a certain university were taken and the following are the results of the sampling.To illustrate the use of Pearson r and t.test for testing significance. consider the following example. A study was made to determine the relationship existing between the grade in calculus and the grade in Fortran Computer Language . .

1 8 2 9 3 10 4 5 6 7 Calculu 75 83 80 s (x) 86 93 84 77 89 78 92 Fortran (y) 76 92 81 89 78 89 87 91 78 84 Is the obtained relationship significant at 0.Studen t no.05 level? .

Solution: To find the degree of relationship present between the two variables. x & y. the Pearson r formula will be used. Student no. x y xy x² y² 1 75 78 5850 5625 6084 2 83 87 7221 6889 7569 3 80 78 6240 6400 6084 4 77 76 5852 5929 5776 5 89 92 8188 7921 8464 6 78 81 6318 6084 6561 7 92 89 8188 8464 7921 8 86 89 7654 7396 7921 9 93 91 8463 8649 8281 10 84 84 7056 7056 7056 ∑x=837 ∑y=845 ∑xy=710 30 ∑x²=704 13 ∑y²=717 17 .

using the range of values for the interpretation of the Pearson r. a direct relationship is present between the two variables.91  The degree of relationship existing between the grade in calculus and the grade in fortran is very high poitive correlation. High score in calculus might also give a high score in fortran or vice versa.e. i.906906226 = 0.Hence. Since the sign of the obtained r is positive. r= n ∑xy-(∑x)(∑y) √[n∑x²-(∑x) ²] [n∑y²(∑y) ²] = 10 (71030)-(837)(845) √[10(70413)-(837)²][10(71717)(845)²] = 710300-707265 √[704130-700569][71717714025] = 3035 √(3561)(3145) = 3035 √11199345 = 0. .

30 to -0.70(-0.The degree of linear relationship can be interpreted through the use of range of values for the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient as shown below:  Range of Values: 0.90 to 1.00 to 0.50 to -0.00 to -0.50(-0.90 to-1.00(-0.70 to -0.00) Very high positive(negative)correlation 0.90) High positive (negative) correlation 0.50 to 0.70 to 0.30) Little.90(-0. if any correlation .50) Low positive (negative) correlation 0.30 to 0.70) Moderate positive (negative) correlation 0.30( 0.

= 2.21 1-r² 0.91 √ 8 = 6.To test the significance of the obtained r value of 0.91 √ 10-2 = 0.1719 .306 Computation: t = 0. 3.V. the test will be used. The following is the procedure for testing the significance of r 1. 5. 4. H₀:p = 0(The population r value is zero or the correlation is zero H₁:p ≠ 0 (the correlation is not zero) Α = 0. 2.05 Test Statistic: t = r √ n-2 1-r² df = n – 2 = 10-2=8.91. C.

.05 level. the obtained relationship is significant at the 0. There exist a real correlation between the grade in calculus and in fortran.Decision: Reject H₀ and accept H₁ since /6.306/. Thus. i.e.21/is greater than/ 2.

Nocon .THANK YOU FOR LISTENING  General Statistics Ferdinand P.