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Power Quality Challenges and

Management in Smart Grid
Prof(Dr.)B.E. KUSHARE

POWER QUALITY ISSUES
• What is power quality
• Classification of
power quality Event.
• EMC
• RMS Voltage
Variations
• Harmonics
• Transients

• Issues in Existing
Grid .
• Existing Standards

• No integration of Single phase Distributed Generation. • Inadequate Reactive power Management. • Inadequate and inefficient outage management.Features of Conventional Grid • Centralized /conventional Generation. . • Less Penetration of DG • Impedance of system is fairly constant.

FEATURES OF CONVENTIONAL GRID • Switched Capacitor Bank . • Rapid Growth of non linear load • Large gap between Production and Demand . • Inadequate transient protection. • Reactive approach towards handling power quality problems. . • No mechanism for power quality Event Prediction and asset Life maximization. • Transformers designed for sinusoidal power supply .

• C) Load Shedding • D) Curtail of Generation • D) Shifting of Production .POWER QUALITY CHALLENES IN SMART GRID • Balancing of production and consumption. • A) Physical Energy Storage :Batteries or pumped storage Hydro • B) Virtual Energy storage : Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

Virtual energy storage. but in more efficient use of the generation facilities and the power system transport capacity. . reduced average temperatures with heating systems (increased with cooling ). but this method of virtual storage can also be used for cooling or heating loads. • The total energy consumption may be reduced somewhat. and the ability to use more efficient forms of energy. for example by reduced losses. • It is important to realize that this approach does not result in energy saving. • By shifting of energy consumption to a later or earlier moment in time. • Charging of car batteries is often mentioned. but these are minor effects and they should not be seen as the main reason for introducing the new technology.

renewable sources may be turned off. • But if generation exceeds consumption. the primary energy is usually transformed into electricity whenever it is available.Curtailment of production • For renewable sources like sun and wind. . or curtailed. • The term “spilled wind” is sometimes used to express this concept.

• Not using the primary energy sources will make it available at a later time.Shifting of Generation • Shifting of production: for sources like natural gas (for combined-heat-andpower) or hydro power. the primary energy source can be temporarily stored. . then used at a later time.

• Hence power quality management is very much important for Existing and Smart Grid. .Power quality issues in smart Grid • Power quality has became an important aspect in Existing as well as smart grid and shall not be neglected in Existing as well as Smart Grid. • Smart Grid properties will impose new challenges in an efficient management of power quality and shall not be neglected while designing and implementation of smart grid. • Adequate power quality management and guarantee is very much required to maintain the EMC of connected equipment to Grid.

Harmonics . flicker :Needs continuous measurement and Evaluation . All three areas are going see major change in smart grid technologies resulting into changes in power quality issues as compared to Existing Grid. The actual power quality variations results from the interaction of customer equipment with the grid . Disturbance :Voltage sag. Voltage swell . interruptions :Un-predictable and requires trigger action for measurements.Power quality disturbances • • • • • Types : Variations :Slow voltage changes. Voltage unbalance . generation equipments. rapid voltage changes . .

The operation of the same results into reduction of lower frequency harmonics and generation of higher order harmonics of low amplitude . Challenges of measurement of low amplitude high frequency harmonics with degree of accuracy . . Domestic generators with storage are single phase .Operation of single phase generation and integration of same in Existing Grid will result into Voltage unbalance as well as generation of Zero and negative sequence harmonic components into the grid. Domestic customers with single phase generator with Self commutating inverters single phase inverter with switching frequency in the range of KHz .Expected Changes in Generation Equipments • • • • • Penetration of micro-grids with current rating lower than 16A single phase generators on large scale .

• It will be necessary to Draft new limits for Zero and Negative Sequence components as far as current and voltage limits are concerned . .Expected Changes in Generation Equipments • Integration of small DG at domestic level will results into increase in zero and negative sequence voltage components and increase in levels due to weak Grid .

Replacement of Existing lamps by low wattage LED lamps will result into new challenges as far as limiting current harmonics and limiting levels at low wattage and new limits should not act as a barrier in use of such equipments. Another Alternative will need to search i.Changes in Customer Equipments • • • • • Change of nature of load from linear (Resistive. The use of the rectifier load will also lead to increase in 5 th and 7 th current harmonic levels and voltage levels above existing limits.e. Capacitive and nonsaturated inductor ) to rectifier load . development of equipments with higher compatibility limits at higher order harmonics. .The Existing limit needs to be changed accordingly. Use of rectifier load will result into the generation of low order current harmonics as compared to Existing levels.

In smart grid the generation will be mix. The behavior of the Grid and accordingly the power quality compatibility and Emission levels will change from time to time . While deciding limits in IEEE 519-1992 std. Higher Short circuit levels helps in maintaining better power quality with constant emission. The changes in generation scenario will results into varying reference impedance resulting into new challenge of use standard constant reference impedance to variable impedance imposing challenges on evaluation of emission limits and compatibility issues .Central generation will have islanding facility.Changes in distribution and transmission network • • • • • • • • Short circuit power is very important and deciding factor in power quality management. as well as the IEC 60726 standard reference impedance is considered is used as a link between the Compatibility level and emission level. In smart grid there will be decrease in resistive load providing damping issues more important for low voltage distribution. . In existing grid the short circuit power is mainly decided by the upstream generation because generation system is centralized and power flow is unidirectional. central generation as well as distributed generation .

Advanced distribution automation will play key role in Smart Grid. This will enable the real time monitoring of the Grid by the ISO and will enable re-configuration of network to optimize the power delivery Efficiency and reduce Extent and duration of interruption. The management of distribution system will be mainly by collecting information on power flows from the various monitoring systems on real time basis .Changes in distribution and transmission Equipments • • • • • • • • • • Increase of Electronic equipments on large scale with EMC filters will result into capacitive load and decrease in resistive load resulting into increase in resonance points and lowering resonant frequencies with lower damping. Network re-configuration. Power quality monitoring to improve power quality Volt and VAR control Fault location . . Smart Grid will consist of Network monitoring to improve reliability Equipment monitoring to improve maintenance .

• Capacitor bank installation . • Voltage Control.Changes in distribution and transmission Equipments • Network re-configuration and self healing. .

• Using the standard methods of grouping into harmonic and inter-harmonic groups and subgroups below 2 kHz will result in high levels for even harmonics and interharmonics .New Power quality Issues • Emission by New Devices: • Expected Growth in generation at lower voltage levels . • New type of consuming Equipments like Hybrid Electric Vehicles will emit harmonic emission. Computers will emit lower order harmonics. • Most Existing equipments like TV .

11 and 13. The combination of a number of discrete components at the characteristic harmonics (5 and 7.is also being emitted by other equipment like energy efficient drives. etc) together with a broadband spectrum over a wide frequency range. Keeping strict to existing compatibility limits and existing methods of setting emission limits could put excessive demands on new equipment. and photo-voltaic installations. being at most 0. Harmonic resonances are more common at these higher frequencies so that any reference impedance for linking emission limits to compatibility levels should be set rather high. The levels are not always as low as for the example shown here. as low as 0. The existing compatibility levels are very low for some frequencies.2%. . micro-generators.5% of the nominal current. 17 and 19.New Power quality Issues • • • • The emission is low over the whole spectrum.

New Power quality Issues • The measurement of these low levels of harmonics at higher frequencies will be more difficult than for the existing situation with higher levels and lower frequencies. • This might require the development of new measurement techniques including a closer look at the frequency response of existing instrument transformers. . • The presence of emission at higher frequencies than before also calls for better insight in the source impedance at these frequencies: at the point of connection with the grid as well as at the terminals of the emitting equipment.

it may also result in radiated disturbances. customers. but choosing power-line communication could introduce new disturbances in the power system. • Many types of communication channels are possible. • Depending on the frequency chosen for power line communication. Power-line communication might seem an obvious choice due to its easy availability. resulting in a further reduction in power quality. possibly interfering with radio broadcasting and communication. distributed generators. .Interference between devices and power linecommunication • Smart grids will depend to a large extent on the ability to communicate between devices. and the grid operator.

effectively shorting out the power-line communication signals • The latter seems to be the primary challenge to power-line communication today . . or by creating a low-impedance path. either by creating a high disturbance level at the frequency chosen for power-line communication.Interference between devices and power linecommunication • It is also true that modern devices can interfere with power-line-communication.

an assessment is typically made of the amount of emission that would be acceptable from this customer without resulting in unacceptable levels of voltage disturbance for other customers. . This will require a different way of planning the distribution network. The total amount of acceptable voltage distortion is divided over all existing and future customers. the amount of consumption will have no limit provided it is matched by a similar growth in production. For each new customer a so-called emission limit is allocated.Allocation of Emission Limits • • • • • • • • • When connecting a new customer to the power system. This assumes however that it is known how many customers will be connected in the future . This continued growth in both production and consumption could lead to the harmonic voltage distortion becoming unacceptably high. Another way of looking at this is that the system strength is no longer determined by the maximum amount of consumption and/or production connected down stream. but by the total amount of harmonic emission coming from downstream equipment. One may say that production and consumption are in balance at the powersystem frequency. but not at harmonic frequencies. With smart grids. Also the number of switching actions will keep on increasing and might reach unacceptable values.

similar to those used to balance consumption and production (including market rules). When the harmonic voltage becomes too large. This could be a solution for the growing harmonic emission with growing amounts of production and consumption. in theory. The presence of generator units close to the loads allows the use of these units in maintaining the voltage during a fault in the grid. or a device could be turned on that emits in opposite phase (the difference between these solutions is actually not always easy to see). Micro-grids with islanding capability can.Allocation of Emission Limits • • • • • • The same balance between “production” and “consumption” can in theory also be used for the control of harmonic voltages. or a harmonic filter could be turned on. could be set up to reduce harmonic emissions. either an emitting source could be turned off. mitigate voltage dips by going very quickly from grid connected operation to island operation. Smart grid communication and control techniques. .

Immunity of devices • Simultaneous tripping of many distributed generators due to a voltage-quality disturbance (like a voltage dip) is the subject concern • As a smart grid attempts to maintain a balance between production and consumption. mass tripping of consumption could have similar adverse consequences and needs further investigation . .

and power-quality disturbances will spread further. This will worsen voltage dips. fast voltage fluctuations (flicker) and harmonics.Weakening of the transmission grid • The increased use of distributed generation and of large Wind parks will result in a reduction of the amount of conventional generation connected to the transmission system. • The fault level will consequently be reduced. .

regulators. and others). But these new challenges should definitely not be used as arguments against the development of smart grids. . equipment manufacturers. It will however also result in the increase of disturbance levels in several cases and thereby introduce a number of new challenges. However they should attract attention to the importance of power quality for the successful and reliable operation of smart grids. customers. New developments need new approaches and perspectives from all parties involved (network operators.Conclusion • • • • The new technology associated with smart grids offers the opportunity to improve the quality and reliability as experience by the customers. standardization bodies.