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Project Management

Resource Person
Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal

A little about me:
• Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering, NED UET
• Masters in Mechanical Engineering (Specialization in
Manufacturing Systems), NED UET
• Doctor of Philosophy, Mechanical Engineering, The University of
Manchester, UK

Working / Tecahing Experience:
• Over 20 years of (combined field and teaching) experience.

Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal

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Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal

Project Management

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al. and Controlling Author : Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal : : : : Project Management Case Studies Dr. Edition : 8th Publishers : RMC Publications Book Author Edition Publishers Dr. Harold Kerzner Edition : 11th or 10th Publishers : Wiley & Sons Book : A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge Author : Miscellaneous Edition : 5th Publishers : PMI Book : PMP Exam Prep Author : Rita Mulcahy et. Scheduling. Harold Kerzner 2nd Wiley & Sons Project Management 4 .Recommended Books Book : Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning.

 One Break will be allowed. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 5 .  Mobile phone ringtones should be on silent. Dr.  Submission of assignments and conduction of tests will be on prescribed dates. smoking and Drinks not allowed.  During discussions.  Assignments must be submitted with the “Assignment Format“ uploaded on one-drive.  Food. resource person will act as moderator.  Punctuality of time is necessary to validate the attendance. where students can add their experiences or raise queries.Class Room Decorum  Project Management class is an open discussion forum. else it will be marked absent.

com Sky drive folder: Will announce later. IoBM e-mail: syed_amir@hotmail. (for lecture slides) Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 6 .Course Contact Consulting Time: Before and after class Consulting Office: Faculty Lounge.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 7 .Sessional Marks  Sessional Marks 60  Hourly Exams 30  Presentation /Assignments  Class participation  Attendance 20 05 05  Final Examination Marks 40 Dr.

Course Contents  Project Scope Management  Introduction to Project Management  Project Time Management (Networking and Scheduling)  Project Management Growth  Stakeholders and Organizational Structure  Project Human Recourse  Project Management Processes  Project Integration Management Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal  Project Cost Management  Project Management tools (MS-Project)  Project Risk Management Project Management 8 .

Course Objectives • Clear understanding of project management. culture and influence on the project management. • Understanding and implementation of time. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 9 . • Knowledge of organization behavior. cost. • Development of Project Life Cycle from planning and initialization to the closure. Dr. risk and scope management processes during the project management. responsibilities and limitation. its scope.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 10 . Visiting Faculty Institute of Business Management Dr.Topic # 1 Introduction to Project Management Resource Person: Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal.

Project & Project Management Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 11 .

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 12 .Project Management is used in all industries. at all levels Dr.

people. money. • Have defined start and end dates. • Consume human and nonhuman resources (i. equipment). • Have funding limits (if applicable).Project Characteristics • Have a specific objective (which may be unique or one-of-a-kind) to be completed within certain specifications.. • Be multifunctional (cut across several functional lines). Dr.e. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 13 .

unique 14 . service or result.Definition of Project A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Projects involve creating something that has not been done in exactly the same way before and which is. Project Management therefore.

Definition of Project According to Kerzner. Have specific objective to be completed within certain specifications. 5. Are multi-functional (cut several functional lines). Have funding limits (if applicable).” Dr. Consume human resources. 2. Syed Amir Iqbal and non-human across Project Management 15 . “A project can be considered to be any series of activities and task that: 1. 3. Have definite start and end dates. 4.

g. teams but each building has new design.  “A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product. Constructing buildings .similar activities.  E. materials. situation and stake holder. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 16 . service or result.  E.g. Dr.”  Temporary does not refers to short duration but means definite beginning and end dates. services or result.Definition of Project According to PMBOK. Building a national monument – construction time is limited but result expected to last for centuries. location.  Unique means new product.

Dr.Project Attributes  Unique objective.  Involves uncertainty.  Requires resources. often from various areas.  Developed using progressive elaboration.  have a primary customer or sponsor.  Temporary. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 17 .

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 18 . improving.Project Examples  Developing a new product.  Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system (hardware or software). or style of an organization. staffing. or result. service.  Effecting a change in the structure. or  Implementing. or infrastructure.  Constructing a building.  Conducting a research effort whose outcome will be aptly recorded. Dr. or enhancing existing business processes and procedures. processes. industrial plant.

A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique. water. Syed Amir Iqbal  Transportation program  Power sector program  Extraction Program Project Management       Specific highway project Local railway project Wind power project Hydro power projects Nuclear plant projects Coal and other mining projects 19 . A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.Portfolio. to meet strategic business objectives. power.infrastructure firm may put together a portfolio that includes a mix of projects in oil & gas. product. or result. Program and Project Portfolio Program Project De fin iti on A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work. Dr. service. railways etc. Ex am pl es To maximize the return on investment . roads.

Portfolio. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 20 . Program and Project Dr.

while projects are temporary and unique • Project objectives are fundamentally different than operational objectives: • Purpose of a project is to attain its objective and terminate • Purpose of an ongoing operations is to sustain business Dr. Operations • Projects and operations sometimes overlap and they share many of the same characteristics: • Performed by people • Constrained by limited resources • Planned.Projects Vs. executed and controlled • Operations are ongoing and repetitive. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 21 .

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 22 . Repeat process or product 1. Systems in place 5. Upsets status quo Dr. Outside of line organization 8. Systems must be created 6. More heterogeneous 5. Violates established practice 9. One objective 3. On-going 3. Supports status quo 9. & time 6.Projects Vs. cost. People are homogeneous 4. cost & time less known certain 7. Performance. New process or product 2. Several objectives 2. One shot – limited life 4. Part of the line organization 7. Operations Operation Project 1. Bastions of established practice 8. Performance.

Project Vs. Syed Amir Iqbal   Project Management 23 . Operations Exercise           Dr.

Why Project Management ?  Identification of time limits for scheduling  Early identification of problems  Improved estimating capability  Identification of functional responsibilities  Minimizing the need for continuous reporting  Measurement of accomplishment against plans Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 24 .

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 25 .  Companies are made up of small operational islands that refuse to communicate for fear of giving up information. Dr.  Project Manager’s responsibility is to get these islands to communicate cross-functionally toward common goals and objectives. may strengthen their opponents.Why Project Management ?  Always “class or prestige” gaps between various levels of management.

”  It’s both a science and an art  PMI breaks it into:    Process groups Knowledge Areas Professional and social responsibility Dr. skills. tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.Project Management “Project management is the application of knowledge. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 26 .

it was dumb luck.Project Management Project management can mean different things to different people. people misunderstand the concept because they have ongoing projects within their company and feel that they are using project management to control these activities. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 27 . deliberate acts when. the following might be considered an appropriate definition: “Project management is the art of creating the illusion that any outcome is the result of a series of predetermined. Quite often. in fact. In such a case.” Dr.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 28 . and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives.”  Furthermore. Dr. organizing.Project Management .Definition “Project management is the planning. project management utilizes the systems approach to management by having functional personnel (the vertical hierarchy) assigned to a specific project (the horizontal hierarchy). directing.

Classical/Project Management Classical management have five functions or principles: Project management have four functions or principles:  Planning  Planning  Organizing  Organizing  Staffing  Controlling  Controlling  Directing  Directing  Project manager does not staff the project. Dr. but the final decision to deliver resources will be taken by line managers.  Staffing is a line responsibility. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 29 .  The project manager requests specific resources.

then the project has a fourth constraint: • good customer relations. If the project is to be accomplished for an outside customer. • within cost. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 30 . and • within performance.Project Management Constraints Project management is designed to. • within time. Dr. manage or control company resources on a given activity.

Project Management Constraints Co st Reso u e Scop rces Ti me s Ri Q ua l it y Project k Customer Satisfaction Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 31 .

or documentation. • Interim Deliverables: Either hardware or software deliverables and progressively evolve as the project proceeds.Project Deliverables Deliverables are outputs. such as reports. . handouts. studies. a prototype. • Software Deliverables: Usually paper products. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 32 reports. or a piece of equipment. such as a table. tangible outputs and can take such form as: • Hardware Deliverables: Hardware items. Such as interim Dr. or the end result of either the completion of the project or the end of a life-cycle phase of the project. Deliverables are measurable.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 33 .Project Deliverables Dr.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 34 . • Dealing with Stakeholders. Dr.Project Manager Selection of project manager is based on. • Size. • Manage or control company resources • Type of customer relationship. nature and scope of deliverable.

Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 35 .Dr.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 36 . Standish group) • Poor communications • Scope Creep • Poor planning • Weak business case • Lack of management direction & involvement • Incomplete specifications • Mismanagement of expectations Dr.Project Failures (Common Causes) Only 28% of Projects Succeed! (ref.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 37 .Stakeholders & Project Management Maturity Dr.

 the project sponsor Portfolio Manager  project team  support staff  customers  users PMO Program Manager  Suppliers and vendors Sponsor Project Team Project Mgmt Team Project Manager Other Project Members Other Stakeholders  opponents to the project Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Functional Managers Project Management Customers/ Users Seller/ Business Partners 38 .Stakeholders Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities – they may also exert influence over the project and its results Stakeholders include.

Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 39 .

Stakeholders Influence. is highest at the start of the project and decreases as the project progresses towards completion. Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 40 . Risk & Uncertainty  Risk and uncertainty are greatest at the start of the project.  The cost of making changes and correcting errors typically increases substantially as the project approaches completion. without significantly impacting cost.  Decrease over the time as decisions are reached and as deliverables are accepted.  Influence to the project’s product.

Information/technology Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 41 . Manpower 3. Facilities 5. Equipment 4.Project Manager – Line Manager Interface Most companies have six resources: 1. Materials 6. Money 2.

Project Manager – Line Manager Interface  Project manager does not control any of these resources directly. except money (i. resources managers.. or. the project budget).  Project managers control project resources (which are temporarily loaned to them) through line managers. Dr. as they are often called. negotiate with line managers for all project resources.  Project managers must.e. functional managers. Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 42 .  Resources are controlled by the line managers.

Syed Amir Iqbal Project Management 43 .Project Manager – Line Manager Interface GM SPONSOR P M LM LM LM APM APM PM = Project Manager APM = Assistant Project Manager LM = Line or Functional Manager Dr.

It is designed to have shared authority and responsibility between Project and Functional Managers. Dr.Effective Project Management  A good daily working relationship between the project manager and those line managers who directly assign resources to projects.  Ability of functional employees to report vertically to their line manager at the same time they report horizontally to project managers.  PM is not designed to be a unity of command methodology. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 44 .

Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 45 . Project Sponsor)  Maturity cannot exist without stability  OPM3: (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model)  PMI’s model that is designed to help organizations determine their level of maturity in project management. Dr.Maturity in Project Management Proje c Mana t ger  Legs represent:  Project Manager Line r Manage Executives  Is like a Tripod  Line Manager(s)  Executive Management (including.

Effective project management ORGANIZATIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR STRUCTURE  Conflicts can destroy the entire project management system. QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TECHNIQUES Dr. 46 . Syed Amir IQbal Project Management  Project management is more behavioral than quantitative.

 Maintaining balance between technical and managerial project functions.  Surviving organizational restraints. but very little authority.  This lack of authority forces them to negotiate with upper level management as well as functional management. Dr.  Interface Management:  Managing human interrelationships in the project organization. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 47 .  Coping with risk associated with project management.Role of Project Manager  Project Managers have increasing responsibility.

Role of Project Manager
 The project manager is responsible for coordinating and integrating
activities across multiple, functional lines.
 the project manager must convert the inputs (i.e., resources) into outputs of
products, services, and ultimately profits.

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Role of Functional Manager
 The functional manager has the responsibility to define
how the task will be done and where the task will be
done (i.e., the technical criteria).
 The functional manager has the responsibility to provide
sufficient resources to accomplish the objective
within the project’s constraints (i.e., who will get the
job done).
 The functional manager has the responsibility for the
deliverable.
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Role of Executive/Sponsors
Expected to interface a project in:
 Project planning and objective setting
 Conflict resolution
 Priority setting
 Project sponsor

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Syed Amir IQbal Project Team Project Manager Project Management        Objective setting Up-front planning Project organization Key staffing Master planning Polices Monitoring execution 51 .Role of Executive/Sponsors Project Sponsor Senior Management Priority Projects Maintenance Projects Project Sponsor Lower Middle Management RELATIONSHIP Project Sponsor Project Manager Dr.

Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 52 .Project Manager As the Planning Agent Dr.

 The project manager provides overall or summary definitions of the work to be accomplished.  As the architect of the project plan.Planning Agent  Few projects are ever completed without some conflict or trade-offs for the project manager to resolve. the project manager must provide:  Complete task definitions  Resource requirement definitions (possibly skill levels)  Major timetable milestones  Definition of end-item quality and reliability requirements  The basis for performance measurement Dr. but the line managers (the true experts) do the detailed planning. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 53 .

Functional Employees’ Concerns Project managers cannot make any promises to a functional employee concerning:  Promotion  Grade  Salary  Bonus  Overtime  Responsibility  Future work assignments Dr. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 54 .

 At 5:00 P. Dr.  He has no time to rest or relax.Downside Of Project Management • Characteristics of the workaholic project manager include:  Every Friday he thinks that there are only two more working days until Monday.  He takes work with him on vacations.M.  He always takes work home from the office. he considers the working day only half over. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 55 .

construction etc. or manufacturing-driven. power plants). (such as automotive assembly line.  But on the macro level. Dr. (such as aerospace.Project-driven Versus Non–project-driven Organizations  On micro level. organizations are either project.  In a project-driven organization.or non– project-driven. everything centers around the projects.)  Priority resources are assigned to the revenue-producing functional line activities rather than the projects in non-project driven organizations. virtually all organizations are either marketing. engineering. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 56 .

 Not all projects have the same project management requirements. and therefore they cannot be managed identically. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 57 . Dr. This difficulty results from poor understanding of project management and a reluctance of companies to invest in proper training.  Executives do not have sufficient time to manage projects themselves. yet refuse to delegate authority.Project-driven Versus Non–project-driven Organizations • Project management in a non–project-driven organization is generally more difficult for these reasons:  Projects may be few and far between.

Dr. project work stays too long in functional departments. only a portion of the organization understands project management and sees the system in action.Project-driven Versus Non–project-driven Organizations Project management in a non–project-driven organization is generally more difficult for these reasons:  Projects tend to be delayed because approvals most often follow the vertical chain of command. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 58 .  Because project staffing is on a “local” basis.  There is heavy dependence on subcontractors and outside agencies for project management expertise. As a result.

The Tip-of-the-iceberg Syndrome Dr. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 59 .

Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 60 .Classification Of Projects/Characteristics Dr.

 Location depends upon:  Type of organization  Responsibility Dr.Location Of The Project Manager Two questions must be answered:  What salary should the project manager earn?  To whom should the project manager report?  Ideally project managers should be at the same pay scale as the people they negotiate. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 61 .

therefore.High-Level Reporting Project Manager:  is charged with getting results from the coordinated efforts of many functions.  must have adequate organizational status to do his job effectively. particularly in a competitive environment. Dr. report to the man who directs all those functions.  needs direct access to an upper echelon of management to get adequate and timely assistance in solving  If reports to a high echelon then customer. will be favorably impressed. He should. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 62 .

Low-Level Reporting  Inefficient to have too many projects. Dr. its real result is to foster executive neglect of the project.  Although giving a small project a high place may create the illusion of executive attention. diverting executives from more vital concerns. especially small ones.  Placing a junior Project Manager too high in the organization will alienate senior functional executives on whom the organization must rely for support. Syed Amir IQbal Project Management 63 .