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Metals and their Properties

Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals
 All metals can be categorized as either
Ferrous or Non Ferrous
 Ferrous Metals contain iron
 Non Ferrous Metals do not contain iron

Examples of Ferrous Metals       Cast Iron Mild Steel (BDMS) Stainless Steel Wrought Iron Tool Steel High Speed Steel (HSS) .

Examples of Non Ferrous Metals        Copper Brass Lead Zinc Aluminium Pewter Gold .

Pure Metals and Alloys  All metals can be categorized as either a pure metal or an alloy  A pure metal is made of only one type of metal and appears in the Periodic Table of Elements  An alloy is a mixture of metals .

Examples of Pure Metals       Gold Copper Lead Aluminium Platinum Zinc .

Examples of Alloys           Brass (copper/zinc) Bronze (copper/tin) Stainless Steel (iron/carbon/nickel/chromium/magnesium Duraluminium (aluminium/copper/manganese) Phosphor Bronze (copper/tin/phosphorous) Bell Metal (80% copper/20% tin) Soft Solder (tin/lead) Pewter (traditionally 80% tin/20% lead) Nickel Silver (copper/zinc/nickel) Naval Brass (63% copper 37% zinc) .

Properties of Metals              Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Bending Strength Shear Strength Torsional Strength Elasticity Plasticity Malleability Ductility Hardness Toughness/Brittleness Fatigue Durability .

It is an essential property of all cables chains and ropes .Tensile Strength  Is the ability to resist stretching or pull forces.

Compressive Strength  Is the ability to withstand a pushing force which tries to crush or shorten .

Bending Strength  Is the ability to withstand the forces that attempt to bend a piece of material .

Shear Strength  Is the ability to resist strong sliding forces acting opposite to each other .

Torsional Strength  Is the ability to withstand twisting forces under torsion or torque .

Elasticity  Is the ability to flex and bend when subject to loads and forces. and regain normal shape and size when these are removed (like an elastic band).  Most structures need to possess some degree of elasticity .

Plasticity  Is the ability of a material to be changed permanently in shape. plasticine)  Some materials are more ‘plastic’ when heated . without cracking or breaking (e.g. by external blows or pressure.

Malleability  Is the extent to which a material can be changed by hammering. pressing or rolling. .

twisting but most usually by stretching into wire .Ductility  The ability to undergo deformation by bending.

Hardness  Is the ability to resist abrasive wear and indentation  It is an important property of cutting tools like files .

.Toughness/Brittleness  Is the ability to withstand sudden shock. and the resistance to cracking when subjected to bending and shear forces.

bending or tension.Fatigue  Is caused by repeated stress cycles.  It is found in structures such as aircraft wings  Fatigue is also affected by corrosion .

weathering and corrosion .Durability  Is the ability to withstand wear and tear.