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Design of digital filter FIR and IIR
brief discussion on filters

Design of digital filter FIR and IIR
brief discussion on filters

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You are on page 1of 52

Objective: Determination of the realizable

transfer function G(Z) approximating a

given frequency response specification is

an important step in the development of

a digital filter.

If an IIR filter is desired, G(Z) should be a

stable real function.

Digital filter design is the process of

deriving the transfer function G(z).

2

Usually, either the magnitude and/or the

phase (delay) response is specified for the

design of digital filter for most applications.

In some situations, the unit sample

response or the step response may be

specified.

In most practical applications. The problem

of interest is the development of a

realizable approximation to a given

magnitude response specification.

3

We discuss in this course only the

magnitude approximation problem.

There are four basic types of ideal

filters with magnitude responses as

H (e )

H (e )

shown below

LP

HP

c 0

HBP (e j )

c

0

HBS (e j )

c2 c1

c1 c2

c2 c1

c1 c2

As the impulse response corresponding to

each of these ideal filters is noncausal and

of infinite length, these filters are not

realizable.

In practice, the magnitude response

specifications of a digital filter in the

passband and in the stopband are given

with some acceptable tolerance.

In addition, a transition band is specified

between the passband and stopband.

5

G e

For

example,

the

magnitude

response

of a digital lowpass

filter may be given as indicated

below

j

As indicated in the figure, in the

passband,

G e 1

p p, we require that

defined by 0

with anjerror

,i.e.,

j

1 p G e

G e j 0

1 p ,

(e ) s , defined

s by

s

stopband,

In the G

, we require that

with an

s - stopband edge frequency

p- peak ripple value in the passband

s- peak ripple value in the stopband

G e

G e

Since

is a periodic function of ,

and

of a real-coefficient digital

filter is an even function of

As a result, filter specifications are given

only for the frequency range 0 .

j

Specifications are often given in

terms of loss function (in dB)

G ( ) 20 log10 G (e j )

p 20 log

dB10 (1 p )

Minimum stopband attenuation

s 20 log10 (dB

s)

9

Magnitude specifications may

alternately be given in a normalized

form as indicated below

10

Here, the maximum value of the

magnitude in the passband is

assumed to be unity.

1 1 2

- Maximum passband

deviation, given by the minimum

value of the magnitude in the

1

passband.

A

11

For the normalized specification,

maximum value of the gain function

or the minimum value of the loss

function is 0 dB

2 attenuation

Maximum

passband

max 20 log

(

1

) dB

10

For p << 1, it can be shown that

max 20 log10 (1 2 p )

dB

12

Fp

In practice, passband edge frequency

and stopband edge

Fs frequency

are specified in Hz.

For digital filter design, normalized

bandedge frequencies need to be

computed from specifications in Hz

p 2 Fp

using

FT

FT

2 FpT

s 2 Fs

s

2 Fs T

FT

FT

13

Example

Let Fp 7

FT 25

Fs 3

kHz,

kHz,

and

kHz

Then

2 (7 103 )

p

0.56

3

25 10

2 (3 103 )

s

0.24

3

25 10

14

The transfer function H(z) meeting the

frequency response specifications should

be a causal transfer function.

For IIR digital filter design, the IIR transfer

function is a real rational function of z-1.

p0 p1 z 1 p2 z 2 pM z M

H ( z)

d 0 d1 z 1 d 2 z 2 d N z N

must be of lowest order N for reduced

computational complexity.

15

For FIR digital filter design, the FIR

transfer function is a polynomial in z-1

with real coefficients:

N

H ( z ) h[n] z n

n 0

degree N of H(z) must be as small as

possible.

If a linear phase is desired, the filter

coefficients must satisfy the constraint:

16

Advantages in using an FIR filter

Can be designed with exact linear phase,

Filter structure always stable with quantized

coefficients.

Order of an FIR filter, in most cases, is

considerably higher than the order of an

equivalent IIR filter meeting the same

specifications, and FIR filter has thus

higher computational complexity.

17

Basic Approaches

Most common approach to IIR filter

design

Convert the digital filter specifications

into an analog prototype lowpass

filter specifications

Determine the analog lowpass filter

transfer function Ha(s).

Transform Ha(s) into the

digital transfer function G(z).

desired

18

Basic Approaches

This approach has been widely used

for the following reasons:

Analog approximation techniques are

highly advanced

They usually yield closed-form solutions

Extensive tables are available for analog

filter design

Many

applications

require

digital

simulation of analog systems

19

Basic Approaches

An analog transfer function to be

denoted as

P s

Ha s

Da s

indicates the analog domain.

A digital transfer function derived

from Ha(s) shall be Pdenoted

as

z

G z

D z

20

Basic Approaches

Basic idea behind the conversion of Ha(s)

into G(z) is to apply a mapping from the sdomain to the z-domain so that essential

properties of the analog frequency

response are preserved.

Thus mapping function should be such that

Imaginary (j) axis in the s-plane be mapped

onto the unit circle of the z-plane.

A stable analog transfer function be mapped

into a stable digital transfer function.

21

Basic Approaches

FIR filter design is based on a direct

approximation of the specified magnitude

response,

with

the

often

added

requirement that the phase be linear.

The design of an FIR filter of order N may

be accomplished by finding either the

length-(N+1) impulse response samples

{h[n]} or the (N+1) samples of its

frequency response H(e j ).

22

Basic Approaches

Three commonly used approaches to

FIR filter design

Windowed Fourier series approach

Frequency sampling approach

Computer-based optimization methods

23

Transformation Method

Bilinear transformation 2 1 z 1

s

T 1 z 1

point in the s-plane to a unique point

in the z-plane and vice-versa.

Relation between G(z) and Ha(s) is

then given by

G z H a s s 2 1 z 1

T 1 z 1

24

Bilinear Transformation

Digital filter design consists of 3 steps:

Develop the specifications of Ha(s) by

applying the inverse bilinear transformation

to specifications of G(z).

Design Ha(s).

Determine

G(z)

by

applying

bilinear

transformation to Ha(s).

on G(z) and T = 2 is chosen for

convenience.

25

Bilinear Transformation

Inverse bilinear transformation for T

= 2 is

1 s

z

1 s

For s 0 j 0

1 0 j 0

z

1 0 j 0

Thus,

2

1

2

0

0

z

2

1

0 j02

2

0 0

z 1

0 0

z 1

0 0

z 1

26

Bilinear Transformation

Mapping of s-plane into the z-plane

27

Bilinear Transformation

For z = ej with T = 2 we have

1 e j

j

j tan 2

j

1 e

Or

= tan (/2)

28

Bilinear Transformation

Mapping is highly nonlinear.

Complete negative imaginary axis in

the s-plane from = to = 0 is

mapped into the lower half of the unit

circle in the z-plane from z =-1 to z = 1.

Complete positive imaginary axis in the

s-plane from = 0 to = is mapped

into the upper half of the unit circle in

the z-plane from z = 1 to z =-1

29

Bilinear Transformation

Nonlinear mapping introduces a

distortion in the frequency axis called

frequency warping

Effect of warping shown below

30

Bilinear Transformation

Steps in the design of a digital filter

Prewarp (p,s)

to find their analog equivalents

(p ,s ).

Design the analog filter Ha(s).

Design the digital filter G(z) by applying bilinear

transformation to Ha(s).

digital filters with prescribed magnitude

response with piecewise constant values.

Transformation does not preserve phase

response of analog filter.

31

Bilinear Transformation

Example - Consider

H a ( s)

c

s c

the above

we get the transfer

function of a first-order digital

lowpass Butterworth filter

G z Ha s

1 z 1

s

1 z 1

c 1 z 1

1

1

1

32

Bilinear Transformation

Rearranging terms we get

1 1 z 1

G( z)

.

2 1 z 1

where

1 c 1 tan c / 2

1 c 1 tan c / 2

33

Bilinear Transformation

Example - Consider the second-order

analog notch transfer function

s 2 02

Ha s 2

s Bs 02

for which

H a j0 0

H a j 0 H a j 1

If

then

H a j 2 H a j1 1 2

B = 2 1 is the 3-dB notch

bandwidth.

34

Bilinear Transformation

Then

G z Ha s

1 z 1

1

1

1 2 1 z

1 B 2 1 z

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

1 02 z 2

1 02 B z 2

1

1 2 z 1 z 2

.

2 1 2 1 z 1 z 2

where

1 02 B 1 tan Bw 2

2

1 0 B 1 tan Bw 2

1 02

cos 0

2

1 0

35

Bilinear Transformation

Example - Design a 2nd-order digital

notch filter operating at a sampling

rate of 400 Hz with a notch

frequency at 60 Hz, 3-dB notch

bandwidth

of 6 Hz.

2 60 / 400 0.3

Thus B 2 6 / 400 0.03

o

From the

above

0.90993 values we get

0.587785

36

Bilinear Transformation

Thus

0.954965 1.1226287 z 1 0.954965 z 2

G z

1 1.1226287 z 1 0.90993 z 2

shown below

37

Using Bilinear Transformation

Example

Design

a

lowpass

Butterworth digital filter with p =

0.25, s = 0.55,

p 0.5 and

dB.

0.1220185

s 15

2

Thus

A2 31.622777

G e j0 1

If

20this

log10 Gimplies

e j 0.25 0.5

20 log10 G e j 0.55 15

38

Using Bilinear Transformation

Prewarping we get

s tan s / 2 tan 0.55 / 2 1.1708496

1 s

2.8266809

k p

1

k1

A2 1

15.841979

39

Using Bilinear Transformation

Thus

log10 1 k1

N

2.6586997

log10 1 k

We choose N = 3

To determine c we use

H a j p

2

1 p s

2N

1 2

40

Using Bilinear Transformation

Then we get

c 1.419915 p 0.588148

3rd-order

lowpass

Butterworth

transfer function for c=1 is

1

H an s

s 1 s 2 s 1

we arriveH ats H s

a

an

0.588148

41

Using Bilinear Transformation

Applying bilinear transformation to Ha(s)

we get the desired digital transfer function

G z Ha s

1 z 1

1 z 1

shown below:

42

and Bandstop Digital Filters

First Approach

1.

digital filter GD(z) to arrive at frequency specifications

of analog filter HD(s) of same type.

2.

prototype analog lowpass filter H LP(s).

3.

4.

transformation used in Step 2.

5.

transformation to HLP(s).

43

and Bandstop Digital Filters

Second Approach

1. Prewarp digital frequency specifications of

desired digital filter GD(z) to arrive at frequency

specifications of analog filter HD(s) of same type.

2. Convert frequency specifications of HD(s) into

that of prototype analog lowpass filter HLP(s).

3. Design analog lowpass filter HLP(s).

4. Convert HLP(s) into an IIR GLP(z) digital transfer

function using bilinear transformation.

5. Transform GLP(z) into the desired digital transfer

function GD(z).

44

Design of a Type 1 Chebyshev IIR

digital highpass filter

Specifications:

Fp 700 Hz , Fs 500 Hz , p 1dB, s 32dB, FT 2kHz.

Normalized

frequencies

2 F

p

FT

angular

bandedge

2 700

0.7

2000

2 Fs 2 500

s

0.5

FT

2000

45

Design

Prewarping these frequencies we get

tan / 2 1.9626105

p

p

tan / 2 1.0

s

s

filter choose p=1.

p

p

Using

we get

s=1.962105.

Analog

specifications:

p 1, s lowpass

1.926105, filter

p 1dB

, s 32dB

46

Design

Design of a Butterworth IIR digital

bandpass filter

Specifications: p1 0.45 , p 2 0.65 , s1 0.3 ,

s 2 0.75 , p 1dB, s 40dB

Prewarping we get

tan / 2 0.8540807

p1

p1

tan / 2 1.6318517

p2

p2

tan / 2 0.5095254

s1

s1

tan / 2 2.41421356

s2

s2

47

Design

Width of passband Bw p 2 p1 0.777771

2

1.393733

0

p1 p 2

1.23010325

2

s1 s 2

0

and

We therefore modify s1

so that

s1

s2

2 . to

0

We set s1 0.5773031

.

For the prototype analog lowpass filter we

choose p=1.

48

Design

2

2

Using

p

B

w

s

we get

1.393733 0.3332788

2.3617627

0.5773031 0.777771

Specifications of prototype

Butterworth lowpass filter:

analog

49

Design

Design of an elliptic IIR digital

bandstop filter

s1 0.45 , s 2 0.65 , p1 0.3 ,

Specifications:

p 2 0.75 , p 1dB, s 40dB

tan

Prewarping

we

get

s1

s1 / 2 0.8540807,

tan / 2 1.6318517

s2

s2

tan / 2 0.5095254,

p1

s1

tan / 2 2.41421356

p2

s2

50

Design

Width of stopband Bw s 2 s1 0.777771

2

1.393733

0

s1 s 2

1.23010325

2

p1 p 2

0

and

We therefore modify p1

so that

p1

p2

2 . to

0

We set p1 0.5773031

.

For the prototype analog lowpass filter we

choose s=1.

51

Design

B

Using

s

2

2

we get

0.5773031 0.777771

p

0.4234126

1.393733 0.3332788

Specifications of prototype

Butterworth lowpass filter:

analog

52

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