Life Cycle Models

Terry Bahill Systems and Industrial Engineering University of Arizona terry@sie.arizona.edu ©, 2002-07, Bahill This file might be located at http://www.sie.arizona.edu/sysengr/slides/

Life cycle models
• The following slides show several life cycle models. • Each gives a different view of the system life cycle. • Each emphasizes a different aspect of the life cycle.

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BAE LM 01/00 life cycle phases
• Market Analysis • Prepare Bid/No Bid Information • Prepare Proposal • Contract Submitted, Awarded & Negotiated • Initial Design • Design System • Integration of System • System Test • Production, Installation and Commissioning • In Field Service and Support • Disposal
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Problem Statement Retirement & Replacement Requirements Discovery

Operations & Maintenance

The System Life Cycle

Alternatives Investigation

Integration and Test Implementation

System Design

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The system life cycle
• The system life cycles for a large office building and a roll of film will be different. • An office building will be used continuously and modified frequently as tenants change through its life cycle. • A roll of film will be in storage most of its life, rarely handled or modified, and used once. • But their life cycles will go through similar phases. • Defining the expected system life is an important design decision.

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It is a cycle
• You recycle each time commercial software is upgraded, e.g., • after Solaris 8 is upgraded to • Solaris 9 and again for • Solaris 10.

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It is a cycle
• You recycle each time commercial software is upgraded, e.g., • when you upgrade to Windows 95 • when you upgrade to Windows 98 • when you upgrade to Windows 2000 • when you upgrade to Windows XP • when you upgrade to Vista

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The Vee Life-Cycle Model
Mission Analysis Operation & Retirement

Continuous Quality Improvement Plan

S system Requirements

Validation Plan

Final System Test

De c

Functional Decomposition

Verification Plan

Verify Subsystems

om po si

tio n

Physical Decomposition

Test Plan

Test Components

te In

n io at gr

Build Components

The design down-stroke and the integration and test upstroke

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Requirements Development

Project Assets Library

The V-diagram

System Acceptance

Conceptual Architectural Model Model

System Integration & Test

Design Model

Sub-system Integration & Test

Implementation Unit Test
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Configuration Managed Documentation -Requirements -Design -Test 9

The V/W-diagram
Development progresses by increment, but how does systems engineering fit in?

Requirements Development

System Requirements AcceptanceDevelopment

System Acceptance

ProjectLibrary

Conceptual Architectural Model Model

System Integration & Test

Conceptual Architectural Model Model

ProjectLibrary

System Integration & Test

Design Model

Sub -system Integration & Test

Design Model

Sub -system Integration & Test

Implementation Unit Test
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Implementation Unit Test

Project Schedule
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The life cycle The life cycle starts with the initial identification of need and continues through system retirement and disposal.
Typical life cycle phases include:
– – – – – – – – – –

Conceptual Design Preliminary Design Design Detail Design Component Development Integration and Test Test Qualification Test Test Production Systems Operation Operation & Maintenance Maintenance Retirement / Disposal Disposal

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Commonly used life cycle models
Waterfall Model: Sequential activities completed in order

Provides feedback loops between the steps to allow refinements to the design Continual and iterative examination of objectives, design alternatives, validation methods via multiple iterations • • Encompasses spiral and incremental development. Requires stable, useable, intermediate systems.

Spiral Model: Commonly used on SW intensive programs

Evolutionary Acquisition (DODI 5000.2).

IBM Rational Unified Process (RUP): iterative incremental development based on reducing design risk during the early phases.

Development process consists of four phases: Inception, Elaboration, Construction and Transition. Each phase has one or more iterations. An iteration consists of the entire set of SW development including requirements development, design, code, integration and test.

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Waterfall model
Requirements Analysis

Functional Analysis

Requirements Allocation

Tradeoff Studies

Synthesis

Evaluation

Integration

Verification & Validation Feedback

Acceptance Test

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Spiral Lifecycle Model

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DoD Evolutionary Acquisition

Money and New Requirements

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RUP life cycle

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Life Cycle Phases Activities
Requirements Time Inception Elaboration Construction Transition Operation, Retirement & Replacement

Analysis

Design

Implementation Verification Operations Iterations Reviews Iter. Iter. Iter. #1 #2 #3
MCR SRR PDR CDR TRR TST

Iter. Iter. #n-1 #n

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Requirements Development will be different based on the life cycle model selected.
– The Waterfall Model includes intensive up-front requirements development. – The spiral model requires multiple iterations of requirements development as the spirals develop. It requires that requirements be prioritized. – Time boxing* is a special spiral model that defines a specific number of requirements that need to be addressed in a short time span. Agile development may be a subset of this. – With evolutionary acquisition new requirements are added for each new system or release. – In the RUP iterative process, the major effort in requirements development occurs in the first phase (Inception). – See RF.Choose Lifecycle Model.doc

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