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UFMFM8-30-3

UFMFB7-30-2

Control

UFMFV7-15-2

Time Response and the Block diagram

approach

Todays Lecture

Last Week:

Inputs: Step, Ramp and Pulse

Response in the Time Domain (First order)

Final Value Theorem

This Week:

Second order time response

Introduction to block diagram algebra

Characterised by (damping ratio) and n

(undamped natural frequency)

The standard form may be expressed in

two different ways

n2

1

G ( s)

2

2

2s s

s 2 n s n2

1

2

n n

Work out the step response as per last week:

n2

1

G ( s)

2

2

2s s

s 2 n s n2

1

2

n n

1

C (s) *

s

1

2s s 2

1

2

n n

n2

s 2 n

1

1

C (s) * 2

Part.Fract. 2

2

s s 2 n s n

s s 2 n s n2

Further manipulati on to fit transf orm tables... .

1 ( s n ) n

C(s)

s ( s n ) 2 D2

where D n 1 2

Transform

C (t ) 1 e

n t

n

Sin D t

Cos D t

D

D

response look like?

y(t)

Under-damped <1

<1: under-damped

(oscillatory response)

(=0: sustained oscillations)

=1: critical damping

(fastest response with no

overshoot)

Increasing

>1: over-damped

(Cannot overshoot)

0

Critically damped

=1

Time

(underdamped example)

y(t)

1 e n t

1 e

n t

sin d t cos d t

d

1 e n t

Time

Periodic Time

(frequency is d rad/s)

y(t)

2

d

Time

Performance Criteria

Rise time, tr

Peak time, tp

y(tp) yss

yss

95%

steady state value (usually

expressed as %)

Settling time, ts

y(t)

value (for underdamped systems)

Time to go from 10% to 90%

amplitude for overdamped

systems

remain in specified ratio (5% in

this case)

Number of oscillations to ts

5% settling time

tr tp

ts

Time

Rise time

By setting y(tr) = 1 in response (and much

manipulation):

2

1

1 1

tr

tan

d

(small tr), but also produce oscillatory

responses.

Compromise necessary (0.4<<0.8 a good start)

Time to peak:

Time to peak: from inspection, for oscillatory

system, time to peak is one half periodic

response:

1 2

tp

2 d d

(and much manipulation)

Peak overshoot

Use tp and evaluate using time response

yt p 1 e

n t p

n

sin d t p cos d t p

d

1 100 per cent

final value

y ss

Settling Time

e

envelope of the oscillation

Equate to 0.05 gives the 5% settling time

n t s

e

0.05

n t s ln 0.05 3

so

3

t s (5%)

n

Number of oscillations before settling time

Settling time

Number of oscillatio ns

Periodic time

response curves have a look at the

exam data sheet.

Example

Mass-Spring-Damper system

k

m

c

f(t)

Mass, m = 1 kg

Spring coefficient, k = 4 N/m

Damping coefficient, c = 2 Ns/m

x(t)

X s

1

1

G s

F s ms 2 cs k s 2 2s 4

standard forms

1

4

1

1

OR

4 s 2 2s 4

4 1 0.5s 0.25s 2

n 4 2 rad/s

1

2

d n 1 2 2

3

3

4

Example

Mass-Spring-Damper system

k

m

c

G s

f(t)

Mass, m = 1 kg

Spring coefficient, k = 4 N/m

Damping coefficient, c = 2 Ns/m

Input Force = unit step

x(t)

1

4

4 s 2 2s 4

1 1

4

*

s 4 s 2 2s 4

1

1

t

c t 1 e

sin 3t cos 3t

4

3

n 4 2 rad/s

1

2

Example

d n 1 2 2

Mass-Spring-Damper

3

3

4

Periodic Time:

2 2

Periodic Time

3.628 sec

d

3

Rise time:

1

tr

d

tan

1 2

Time to peak:

1 2

tp

1.814 sec

2 d d

3

Example

Mass-Spring-Damper

n 4 2 rad/s

1

2

d n 1 2 2

3

3

4

Peak overshoot

Apply tp to equation

c t p

1

1

1.814

1

e

sin

3

(

1

.

814

)

cos

3

(

1

.

814

)

0.2092

4

3

Percentage increase

100%

final value

css

0.2092 0.25

100% 16%

0.25

Example

Mass-Spring-Damper

n 4 2 rad/s

1

2

d n 1 2 2

5% Settling Time

3

3

t s (5%)

3 sec

n 0.5 (2)

Number of oscillations

Settling time

3

Number of oscillatio ns

0.827

Periodic time 3.628

3

3

4

Example

Mass-Spring-Damper system

t r 1.209 s

t p 1.814 s

ts 3 s

Periodic Time 3.628 s

we are by now happy with using transfer

functions and showing them in blocks

More complex systems can be made up of

a number of blocks:

R

G1

Combined

G2

We refer to manipulating blocks like this as

Block Diagram Algebra, and it helps

understand the overall behaviour of a system

Lets look at the closed loop feedback system

below:

error

C

+

R

G

H

R

error

+

C

G

H

Substituting and rearranging

Opposite sign

Rules!

Todays lecture

Defined by natural frequency and damping ratio

Damping ratio relates to oscillation in response

Performance criteria

Rise time

Peak time and amplitude

Settling time

Tutorial sheet 4 Identifying performance criteria

Tutorial sheet 4.5 Block Diagram algebra

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