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# UWE Bristol

UFMFM8-30-3

UFMFB7-30-2

Control
UFMFV7-15-2

## Lecture 4: Second Order

Time Response and the Block diagram
approach

Todays Lecture
Last Week:
Inputs: Step, Ramp and Pulse
Response in the Time Domain (First order)
Final Value Theorem

This Week:
Second order time response
Introduction to block diagram algebra

## Second Order Systems

Characterised by (damping ratio) and n
(undamped natural frequency)
The standard form may be expressed in
two different ways
n2
1
G ( s)
2
2
2s s
s 2 n s n2
1
2
n n

## Second Order Step response

Work out the step response as per last week:
n2
1
G ( s)
2
2
2s s
s 2 n s n2
1
2
n n
1
C (s) *
s

1
2s s 2
1
2
n n

n2
s 2 n
1
1
C (s) * 2
Part.Fract. 2
2
s s 2 n s n
s s 2 n s n2

## Second Order Step response

Further manipulati on to fit transf orm tables... .
1 ( s n ) n
C(s)
s ( s n ) 2 D2

where D n 1 2

Transform

C (t ) 1 e

n t

n
Sin D t
Cos D t
D

## So, what does this C (t ) 1 e nt Cos D t n Sin D t

D
response look like?

y(t)

Under-damped <1
<1: under-damped
(oscillatory response)
(=0: sustained oscillations)
=1: critical damping
(fastest response with no
overshoot)

Increasing

>1: over-damped
(Cannot overshoot)
0

Critically damped
=1

Time

## Second Order Step response

(underdamped example)
y(t)

1 e n t

1 e

n t

sin d t cos d t

d

1 e n t

Time

## Second Order Step response

Periodic Time
(frequency is d rad/s)
y(t)

2
d

Time

## Second Order Step response

Performance Criteria
Rise time, tr

Peak time, tp

y(tp) yss
yss
95%

## Initial overshoot, above

steady state value (usually
expressed as %)

Settling time, ts

y(t)

## Time to first reach steady state

value (for underdamped systems)
Time to go from 10% to 90%
amplitude for overdamped
systems

## Time for response to reach and

remain in specified ratio (5% in
this case)

Number of oscillations to ts

5% settling time

tr tp

ts

Time

## Second Order Step response

Rise time
By setting y(tr) = 1 in response (and much
manipulation):
2

1
1 1
tr
tan
d

## Low damping ratio gives faster response

(small tr), but also produce oscillatory
responses.
Compromise necessary (0.4<<0.8 a good start)

## Second Order Step response

Time to peak:
Time to peak: from inspection, for oscillatory
system, time to peak is one half periodic
response:

1 2
tp

2 d d

## Confirmed by setting first derivative of y to 0

(and much manipulation)

## Second Order Step response

Peak overshoot
Use tp and evaluate using time response

yt p 1 e

n t p

n

sin d t p cos d t p
d

1 100 per cent
final value
y ss

Settling Time

## Decaying exponential term nt describes

e
envelope of the oscillation
Equate to 0.05 gives the 5% settling time
n t s

e
0.05
n t s ln 0.05 3
so
3
t s (5%)
n

## Second Order Step response

Number of oscillations before settling time
Settling time
Number of oscillatio ns
Periodic time

## We also use tables and standard

response curves have a look at the
exam data sheet.

## Standard (normalised) step response

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper system
k

m
c

f(t)

Mass, m = 1 kg
Spring coefficient, k = 4 N/m
Damping coefficient, c = 2 Ns/m

x(t)

X s
1
1
G s

F s ms 2 cs k s 2 2s 4
standard forms
1
4
1
1

OR
4 s 2 2s 4
4 1 0.5s 0.25s 2

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2

d n 1 2 2

3
3
4

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper system
k

m
c

G s

f(t)

Mass, m = 1 kg
Spring coefficient, k = 4 N/m
Damping coefficient, c = 2 Ns/m
Input Force = unit step

x(t)

1
4
4 s 2 2s 4

## Full solution is:

1 1
4
*
s 4 s 2 2s 4

1
1

t
c t 1 e
sin 3t cos 3t
4
3

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2

Example

d n 1 2 2

Mass-Spring-Damper

3
3
4

Periodic Time:

2 2
Periodic Time

3.628 sec
d
3

Rise time:
1
tr
d

tan

1 2

Time to peak:

## 1 tan 1 3 1.209 sec

1 2

tp

1.814 sec
2 d d
3

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2
d n 1 2 2

3
3
4

Peak overshoot
Apply tp to equation
c t p

1
1

1.814
1

e
sin
3
(
1
.
814
)

cos
3
(
1
.
814
)

0.2092

4
3

Percentage increase

## peak value - final value c t p css

100%

final value
css

0.2092 0.25

100% 16%
0.25

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2
d n 1 2 2

5% Settling Time

3
3
t s (5%)

3 sec
n 0.5 (2)
Number of oscillations
Settling time
3
Number of oscillatio ns

0.827
Periodic time 3.628

3
3
4

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper system
t r 1.209 s
t p 1.814 s
ts 3 s
Periodic Time 3.628 s

## What about more complicated systems?

we are by now happy with using transfer
functions and showing them in blocks
More complex systems can be made up of
a number of blocks:
R

G1

Combined

G2

## What about more complicated systems?

We refer to manipulating blocks like this as
Block Diagram Algebra, and it helps
understand the overall behaviour of a system
Lets look at the closed loop feedback system
below:
error
C
+
R
G
H

## What about more complicated systems?

R
error
+
C
G

H
Substituting and rearranging

Opposite sign

Rules!

Todays lecture

## Step response of Second Order System

Defined by natural frequency and damping ratio
Damping ratio relates to oscillation in response
Performance criteria
Rise time
Peak time and amplitude
Settling time

## Simplifying block diagrams

Tutorial sheet 4 Identifying performance criteria
Tutorial sheet 4.5 Block Diagram algebra