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UWE Bristol

Dynamics and Control


UFMFM8-30-3

Aerospace Systems, Avionics and Control


UFMFB7-30-2

Control
UFMFV7-15-2

Lecture 4: Second Order


Time Response and the Block diagram
approach

Todays Lecture
Last Week:
Inputs: Step, Ramp and Pulse
Response in the Time Domain (First order)
Final Value Theorem

This Week:
Second order time response
Introduction to block diagram algebra

Second Order Systems


Characterised by (damping ratio) and n
(undamped natural frequency)
The standard form may be expressed in
two different ways
n2
1
G ( s)
2
2
2s s
s 2 n s n2
1
2
n n

Second Order Step response


Work out the step response as per last week:
n2
1
G ( s)
2
2
2s s
s 2 n s n2
1
2
n n
1
C (s) *
s

1
2s s 2
1
2
n n

response to unit step input

n2
s 2 n
1
1
C (s) * 2
Part.Fract. 2
2
s s 2 n s n
s s 2 n s n2

Second Order Step response


Further manipulati on to fit transf orm tables... .
1 ( s n ) n
C(s)
s ( s n ) 2 D2

where D n 1 2

Transform

C (t ) 1 e

n t

n
Sin D t
Cos D t
D

Second Order Step response

So, what does this C (t ) 1 e nt Cos D t n Sin D t

D
response look like?

y(t)

Under-damped <1
<1: under-damped
(oscillatory response)
(=0: sustained oscillations)
=1: critical damping
(fastest response with no
overshoot)

Increasing

>1: over-damped
(Cannot overshoot)
0

Critically damped
=1

Time

Second Order Step response


(underdamped example)
y(t)

1 e n t

1 e

n t

sin d t cos d t

d

1 e n t

Time

Second Order Step response


Periodic Time
(frequency is d rad/s)
y(t)

2
d

Time

Second Order Step response


Performance Criteria
Rise time, tr

Peak time, tp

y(tp) yss
yss
95%

Time to initial overshoot

Initial overshoot, above


steady state value (usually
expressed as %)

Settling time, ts

y(t)

Peak overshoot, y(tp) yss

Time to first reach steady state


value (for underdamped systems)
Time to go from 10% to 90%
amplitude for overdamped
systems

Time for response to reach and


remain in specified ratio (5% in
this case)

Number of oscillations to ts

5% settling time

tr tp

ts

Time

Second Order Step response


Rise time
By setting y(tr) = 1 in response (and much
manipulation):
2

1
1 1
tr
tan
d

Low damping ratio gives faster response


(small tr), but also produce oscillatory
responses.
Compromise necessary (0.4<<0.8 a good start)

Second Order Step response


Time to peak:
Time to peak: from inspection, for oscillatory
system, time to peak is one half periodic
response:

1 2
tp

2 d d

Confirmed by setting first derivative of y to 0


(and much manipulation)

Second Order Step response


Peak overshoot
Use tp and evaluate using time response

yt p 1 e

n t p

n

sin d t p cos d t p
d

Percentage maximum peak value:

peak value - final value y t p



1 100 per cent
final value
y ss

Second Order Step response


Settling Time

Decaying exponential term nt describes


e
envelope of the oscillation
Equate to 0.05 gives the 5% settling time
n t s

e
0.05
n t s ln 0.05 3
so
3
t s (5%)
n

Second Order Step response


Number of oscillations before settling time
Settling time
Number of oscillatio ns
Periodic time

We also use tables and standard


response curves have a look at the
exam data sheet.

Standard (normalised) step response

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper system
k

m
c

f(t)

Mass, m = 1 kg
Spring coefficient, k = 4 N/m
Damping coefficient, c = 2 Ns/m

x(t)

X s
1
1
G s

F s ms 2 cs k s 2 2s 4
standard forms
1
4
1
1

OR
4 s 2 2s 4
4 1 0.5s 0.25s 2

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2

d n 1 2 2

3
3
4

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper system
k

m
c

G s

f(t)

Mass, m = 1 kg
Spring coefficient, k = 4 N/m
Damping coefficient, c = 2 Ns/m
Input Force = unit step

x(t)

1
4
4 s 2 2s 4

Unit Step input, so C ( s )

Full solution is:

1 1
4
*
s 4 s 2 2s 4

1
1

t
c t 1 e
sin 3t cos 3t
4
3

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2

Example

d n 1 2 2

Mass-Spring-Damper

3
3
4

Periodic Time:

2 2
Periodic Time

3.628 sec
d
3

Rise time:
1
tr
d

tan

1 2

Time to peak:

1 tan 1 3 1.209 sec

1 2

tp

1.814 sec
2 d d
3

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2
d n 1 2 2

3
3
4

Peak overshoot
Apply tp to equation
c t p

1
1

1.814
1

e
sin
3
(
1
.
814
)

cos
3
(
1
.
814
)

0.2092

4
3

Percentage increase

peak value - final value c t p css


100%

final value
css

0.2092 0.25

100% 16%
0.25

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper

n 4 2 rad/s
1

2
d n 1 2 2

5% Settling Time

3
3
t s (5%)

3 sec
n 0.5 (2)
Number of oscillations
Settling time
3
Number of oscillatio ns

0.827
Periodic time 3.628

3
3
4

Example
Mass-Spring-Damper system
t r 1.209 s
t p 1.814 s
ts 3 s
Periodic Time 3.628 s

Peak overshoot 0.2092 (16%)

What about more complicated systems?


we are by now happy with using transfer
functions and showing them in blocks
More complex systems can be made up of
a number of blocks:
R

G1

Transfer functions are


Combined

G2

What about more complicated systems?


We refer to manipulating blocks like this as
Block Diagram Algebra, and it helps
understand the overall behaviour of a system
Lets look at the closed loop feedback system
below:
error
C
+
R
G
H

What about more complicated systems?


R
error
+
C
G

H
Substituting and rearranging

Opposite sign

Rules!

Todays lecture

Step response of Second Order System


Defined by natural frequency and damping ratio
Damping ratio relates to oscillation in response
Performance criteria
Rise time
Peak time and amplitude
Settling time

Simplifying block diagrams


Tutorial sheet 4 Identifying performance criteria
Tutorial sheet 4.5 Block Diagram algebra