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This is a powerpoint presentation about electrons. It also includes information about wavelengths and different equations. A part of this presentation talks about the different types of orbitals in atoms too.

This is a powerpoint presentation about electrons. It also includes information about wavelengths and different equations. A part of this presentation talks about the different types of orbitals in atoms too.

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radiation (forms of energy that exhibit wavelike

behavior as they travel through space).

Electromagnetic waves - combination of electrical and

magnetic fields which travel at the speed of light

Wavelength

in

nm or ngstroms ()

Relative sizes of

wavelengths

units are usually cycles/sec, sec 1, or

Hertz (Hz).

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

www.atmos.washington.edu/~hakim/301/handouts.html

The emission of

electrons from a

metal when light

shines on the

metal. The

number of

electrons and their

energies depends

on the brightness

of the incident

light.

http://www.astro.virginia.edu/class/oconnell/astr30/im/photoelectric-effect2.jpg

E=h

emits energy in small, specific

amounts called quanta. A

quantum is the minimum

quantity of energy that can be

lost or gained by an atom. He

proposed

E = h where

E = energy in Joules,

= frequency , and

h = Plancks constant;

6.626 x 10-34 Js

What is a Joule?

A Joule is the derived unit of

energy in the SI system. It is

the energy exerted by a force

of one Newton acting to move

an object through a distance of

one meter.

James Prescott

Joule

1 Newton-meter = (mass x acceleration) x

meter=

kg m/s m = kgm /s

2

(1905)

abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/wave_particle.gif

Each particle of light

carries a quantum of

energy which Einstein

called photons. A photon is

a particle of

electromagnetic

radiation having zero mass

and carrying a quantum of

energy.

For an electron to be ejected from the surface of a metal, the metal

surface must be hit by a single photon possessing at least the

minimum energy required to knock the electron loose (multiples of

whole numbers of photons) Each metal has electrons bound to its

surface with different strengths so the minimum frequencies differ

with each metal.

Spectroscopy

ctrum

e

p

S

n

o

si

is

m

-E

e

in

L

Bright

The Hydrogen-atom

When an excited hydrogen atom falls back

from an excited state (a higher potential

energy than it has in its ground state) to its

ground state (lowest energy state of an

atom) or a lower energy state, it emits a

photon of radiation.

Ephoton = E2-E1

orbits have

specific

energies, given

by a simple

formula

En = (-RH)

n = 1,2,3,4,. . .

RH is the

Rydberg

constant

2.18 x 10-18 J

bands of light energy is

referred to as an emission

line spectrum, and the

individual bands of light

are called spectral lines.

The concept of electron

energy levels is supported

by spectral lines.

Combining equations

Given: E = h and E = E2-E1

combining them results in

= E = ( RH) (1 - 1 )

h

h

n 2i n 2f

Further simplification:

= ( RH) (1 - 1 )

n 2i n 2f

specified energy states.

Electrons in hydrogen atoms can absorb

only certain specific amounts of energy

and no others.

When the excited electrons in a hydrogen

atom lose energy, they lose only specific

amounts of energy as photons.

Different photons produce different color

lines as seen in a bright line-emission

spectrum.

The main problem was that this

explanation could not explain the

behavior of any other element besides

hydrogen.

theory?

The visible bands in a

spectra are called the

Balmer series. The UV

and IR lines are called

Lyman and Paschen

series, respectively.

Scientists expected to

see a continuous

spectrum.

This observation of the

hydrogen atom led to

quantum theory.

If electrons behave

as both particles

and waves, where

are they located in

an atom?

Heisenberg Uncertainty

Principle (1927)

It is impossible to determine simultaneously

both

the position and velocity of an electron or

any

other particle.

(p) ( x) = h (Plancks constant)

p = uncertainty in momentum

x = uncertainty in position

1924 Louis de

Broglie

Electrons should be

considered as waves

confined to the space

around the nucleus.

http://youtube.com/watch?v=x_tNzeouHC4

Bohr applet:

http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/quantumzone/bohr.html

equation

Einstein

Planck

E = mc2

E=h

Therefore:

mc2 = h

[Substitute v (any velocity) for c]

mv2 = h

[rearrange and substitute v for c in c = ; then solve for = v ]

mv2 = hv

mv2

=h

mv

equation

De Broglies equation was applicable to

any

object, not just atoms. The wave

properties

of electrons were demonstrated in 1927

by

Germer and Davisson (U.S.) using

diffraction by crystals.

This technique is used today in electron

microscopy.

wave mechanical model

( + + ) + 82m (E-V) = 0

x2 y2 z2

h2

(psi) = wave amplitude function

m = mass of electron

E = energy

V = potential energy

x, y, and z are the coordinates in space where

the equation is solved

The solutions to his equation are

known as wave functions and

they describe the regions in space

where there is a high probability of

finding the electron at the point in

space for which the equation was

solved. These regions of space are

called orbitals.

Quantum numbers

Describe the properties of atomic orbitals and the

properties of electrons in these orbitals. There are

4 quantum numbers, the first three of which

result from the solutions to Schrdingers wave

equation.

Principal quantum number (n) the main energy

level occupied by the electron. n= 1,2,3,4, . . .

equal to n2. The total number of electrons within a

given shell is equal to 2n2.

number (l) or angular momentum

quantum number

Values include l = 0, up to and including n-1

The letter designations originally stood for

sharp,

principal, diffuse and fundamental. These

words were

used to describe different series of spectral

Orbital Letter

Number Number of

lines quantu designati of

electrons

on

orbitals per

emittedm

by

the

elements.

numbe

sublevel

r

0

10

numbers

Magnetic quantum number (ml)

indicates the

orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.

Values range from l to +l (defines how

many of

each type of orbital exists)

the two

possible spin states of electrons in orbitals.

Principal

quantum

number

Orbital

quantum

number

Magnetic quantum

number

Either clockwise (+ ) or

counterclockwise (- )

n=1

l = 0 (s)

ml = 0

+,

n=2

l = 0 (s),

l = 1 (p)

l = 0 (s),

l = 1 (p),

l = 2 (d)

ml = 0

ml = -1, 0, +1

+,

+ , ; + ,

; + ,

ml = 0

ml = -1, 0, +1

ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2

+,

+ , : + , ; +

,

+ , ; + , ;

+ , ; + , ;

+,

l = 0 (s),

l = 1 (p),

l = 2 (d),

l = 3 (f)

ml = 0

ml = -1, 0, +1

ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2

ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1,

+2, +3

+,

+ , ; + , ; + ,

+ , ; + , ; + , ;

+ , ;

+,

+ , ,; + , ; + , ;

+ , ; + , ; + , ;

+,

n=3

n=4

s

o

r

b

i

t

a

l

p orbitals

d

orbital

s

f orbitals

start with 1s)

Short hand, or noble gas

configuration (use the noble gas

immediately preceding the element

in question, put its symbol in

brackets [ ], and then write out the

outer shell configuration.

Orbital diagram/notation

configuration

Electron configurationsrules

Aufbau

principle:

An electron

occupies the

lowest energy

orbital that can

receive it.

Diagonal Rule

Hunds Rule

orbitals of equal

energy are each

occupied by one

electron before any

orbital is occupied by

a second electron,

and

all electrons in singly

occupied orbitals

must have the same

spin.

no two electrons in the same

atom

have the same set of four

quantum

numbers. The first three may be

the same, but the spin must be

opposite.

http://

intro.chem.okstate.edu/Work

shopFolder/Electronconfnew.

html

Example 1

Boron atomic number 5

Longhand: 1s22s22p1

Shorthand: [He]2s22p1

Orbital diagram:

1s

2s

2p

Example 2

Orbital diagram:

Longhand:

1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24

f145d106p4

Shorthand: [Xe] 6s24f145d106p4

principle

For Chromium (Cr)

we would predict: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2

3d4

but it is actually -->1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s13d5

For Copper (Cu)

we would predict: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2

3d9

but it is actually --> 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1

3d10

Degenerate orbitals

a group of orbitals with the same

energy

Examples: Chromium (24) Cr

Shorthand: [Ar]4s13d5 NOT [Ar]4s23d4

Mo and W are similar

Copper (29) Cu

Shorthand: [Ar]4s13d10 NOT [Ar]4s23d9

Ag and Au are similar

Additional Definitions

Paramagnetic: An atom has

unpaired

electrons in its electron

configuration.

(Look at its orbital diagram)

Diamagnetic: All electrons in an

atom

Ion Configurations

Electrons will be added to, or taken away

from

orbitals in the following order: s, p, d, f (i.e.

the outer or valence shell first)

Examples:

Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p5 for Chlorine becomes

1s22s22p63s23p6

1s22s22p6

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