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Plant Layout Training Series

MODULE-1
Presentation

Overview Steam Power Plants

For internal use only / Copyright Siemens AG 2006. All rights reserved.

Contents
2. Overview of Steam Power Plants
1. Introduction to Coal fired thermal power station;
coal
handling, steam generation, power conversion,
circulating water and post-combustion cleanup systems.
2. Introduction to steam turbine, generator, heat
exchangers, condenser, main pumps
3. Introduction to planning of Steam Turbine building in a
Reference Power Plant

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Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Conventional Power Plant, Sea Location

Stack

Jetty

Circulation
Water OutFall

Ash
Silo
s

Workshop and
Stores Building
Electrochlorinating

Fuel Oil
Tanks
Demineralisation
plant
Staff Amenities
and
Administration
Building

Circulation
Water Pump
Building

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Coal Yard

Steam
Generators
Switch Gear
Building in between Steam Turbine
Building

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Coal Handling System

TRAIN UNLOADING

TRANSFER
BUILDING

CRUSHER
BUILDING

L
FIL OR
O Y
SIL VE
N
CO

UNLO
ADIN
G CO
NVEY
STOC
OR
KOU
T/RE
CON
C
VEYO LAIM
R

HER
CRUS YOR
E
CONV

RE

CL
AIM

ACTIVE PILE
CO

NV

RECLAIM
EY

OR

RESERVE PILE

UNIT
SILOS

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Systems of Power Island


Hot Reheat Steam

POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM

STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM

GENERATOR

HP

IP

LP
Extraction
steam

Cold Reheat Steam

FEEDER(S)

HP

REHEATER
STEAM
DRUM

ECONOMIZER

PRIMARY AIR FAN(S)

CEP
CWP

POST-COMBUSTION CLEANUP
SYSTEM

PARTICULATE
REMOVAL
SYSTEM

INDUCED
DRAFT
FAN(S)

AIR HEATER

PULVERZER(S)

April-07

DEAERATOR

SO2 REMOVAL
SYSTEM

WALL
TUBES

STEAM
GENERATOR

Make
up

CONDENSER
LP

BFP
FEEDWATER
HEATER(S)

SUPER
HEATER

Page 5

COOLING
TOWER(S)

Superheated Steam

STACK

UNIT
SILOS

FORCED
DRAFT FAN(S)

Scrubber solids &


fly ash to landfill

Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Rankine Cycle with superheat, reheat and regeneration


heat addition
3

4b

Q1
2

Q1
3b

3a

Boiler

Wa

Super 3
heater
4a

Heaters

reheater

4b

Turbine

Wb
Wp

4a

compression

2
Wp

isentropic
expansion

Wa
pump

1
Wp

heat rejection

Q2

Heaters
Condenser

Q2

Heat addition at multiple pressures; latent and sensible heat addition with superheat
and reheat to working medium
Higher is the temperature/pressure at source, greater is the work done in turbine
Lower the sink temperature, greater is the work done in turbine
Feedwater heating regeneration to reduce load on boiler and increase cycle efficiency
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Wb

Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Schematic of a Coal fired Power Plant

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Principles of Steam Power Plant

Operates on combined Superheat, reheat and regeneration


cycle
Uses Coal as primary fuel in a conventional Steam Generator
Recovers heat by means of economizers and regenerative air
heaters.
Optimizes the heat rate and cycle efficiency by means of
regenerative feedwater heaters
Efficiencies in the order of 35%

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Power Plant Components


Major Equipment in a Power Plant
1. Steam Turbine
2. Generator
3. Condenser
4. Heat Exchangers
5. Pumps

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Steam Turbines Product Range Overview

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Product Range application

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Turbo-Generator set (HMN series)

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Steam Turbine
CROSS OVER PIPE

IP TURBINE

LP TURBINE

ONE COMMON
CONDENSER
FOR BOTH LP
TURBINES. CW
FLOWS IN 2
PATH AND IS
DIVIDED

HP TURBINE

COMBINED IP STOP AND


CONTROL VALVE
COMBINED HP STOP AND
CONTROL VALVE
COMBINED LP BYPASS
STOP AND CONTROL
VALVE
COOLING WATER IN AND OUT

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HP turbine

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IP Turbine

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LP Turbine
DOUBLE FLOW LOW PRESSURE TURBINE

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Generators-Product Range

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Air/Hydrogen Cooled Generators

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Generator (Air Cooled)

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Tasks of a Condenser

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Classification of Condensers
Circulating Water System

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Classification of Condensers
Circulating Water System

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Condenser Types

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Condenser Types

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Condenser Types

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Feed water Heater

Tube sheet

Extraction steam inlet

Vents

Feedwater outlet
Possible
condensate
level

Steam phase

Steam cooling Zone

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Condensate phase

Feedwater inlet

Drain cooling Zone

Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Horizontal LP Feedwater Heater with Drain Cooling Zone

Tube sheet

Extraction steam inlet

Vents

Feedwater outlet
Possible
condensat
e level

Steam phase

Steam cooling Zone

Condensate phase

Feedwater inlet

Drain cooling Zone

Beside of an economic Pipe Routing sufficient space for Insulation and access has
to be considered while placing the heaters.
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Comparison of horizontal and vertical heaters

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Gland Steam Condenser

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External drain cooler (for Heater A1 and A2)

A
For WGQ
ca. 7,2 m
2

For WGQ
ca. 1m

1
D

1 Drains Inlet
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2 Drains Outlet
April-07

3 Main Condensate Inlet

4 Main Condensate Outle

Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Deaerator and Feedwater Tank

Objectives:
1. Feed water heating (direct)
2. Collector for condensates
3. Storage overhead tank for BFP
4. Used for balancing during
operation

Separate Deaerator tank mounted


on the Feedwater tank is less
costly than a STORK sprinkler
deaerator
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Deaerator and Feedwater Tank

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Main Pumps

Feedwater pump
Condensate extraction pump
Circulating water pump

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Boiler Feedwater Pump Design

Ring Section Type

less invest costs

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April-07

Barrel Type

faster and easier


assembly/disassembly
no cutting of connecting
pipes

Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Boiler Feedwater Pump (Barrel Type)

Sauggehuse

Druckgehuse

Welle

Leitrad

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Overview ofLaufrad
Steam Power Plants
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Boiler Feedwater Pump (Ring Section)

Stufengehuse

Verbindungsschraube

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Boiler Feedwater Pumps


Classification by mode of Control
1. Variable Frequency drive
2. Constant Frequency drive with different control methods
Bypass operation
Throttling
Speed control
Turbo-coupling
Thyrister

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Flow Control methods

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Hydro-Coupling (Voith)

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Economics of Speed Controlled Pumps


Hydro Coupling

Design Features
Speed control by adjusting the scoop tube
position to vary the hydraulic oil flow rate
Power transmission via hydraulic oil from
pump wheel which is driven by the motor to
turbine wheel

Design Features
General principle: transformation of the
incoming alternating voltage to a direct
voltage and then back to an alternating
voltage of the required motor frequency
Varying the motor frequency by thyristor

Advantages
Low I&C effort
Low space requirement

Advantage
Highest full and part load efficiency

References CCPP
Cottam, UK
Kings Lynn, UK
Pulau Seraya, Singapore

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Frequency Converter

April-07

Remarks
Inadmissible harmonics may occur
Operating ambient temperature < 35C
Reference CCPP
Donaustadt, Austria
Kln-Niehl, Germany

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Condensate Extraction Pump

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Condensate Extraction Pump


Iskenderun
Flow
TDH
Length
Diameter
Weight
Material
(impeller)

215 l/s
311 m
7,5 m
0,95 m
4,4 t
Cr-steel
cast steel (bowl,
stage casing)

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Can for Condensate Extraction Pump


Iskenderun

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Circulating Water Pumps (Tubular Casing)


non-pull-out type

pull-out type
Motor Stool
Coupling
Adjusting Nut
Thrust Bearing
Discharge cover

Coupling
Adjusting Nut
Thrust Bearing
Discharge Elbow
Shaft

Discharge Elbow
Delivery
Supension
Pipe

Disc Coupling,
Rigid

Shaft

Radial Bearing

Disc Coupling,
Rigid

Column Pipe

Radial Bearing

Diffuser

Column Pipe

Wear Ring

Diffuser

Impeller

Wear Ring
Impeller
Bellmouth

April-07
Page Dr.
44Wehinger / September
2003

Bellmouth

Quelle: KSB
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Circulating Water Pump


Iskenderun
Flow
TDH
Length
Diameter
Material

15,35 m/s
18,3 m
11 m
3,3 m
Duplex
(X2CrNiMo

22.5)

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Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant

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Steam Turbine Building

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Steam Turbine Building Longitudinal Section

Generator
Steam Turbine
Exciter
Condensat
Polishing
Plant

Compressed Air Uni

Closed CW Pumps
Closed CW Heat ExchangerCondenser Inlet/Outlet

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Seal Oil

Condensate Pumps Unit

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Steam Turbine Building Cross Section View

Turbine
Crane

Steam Turbine
Condenser
Main Cooling Water
Piping

Feed
Water
Tank

Generator Circuit
Breaker

LP
Heaters
Boiler
Feed
Pump
Main Machine Set Foundation

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April-07

Main
Transforme
r
Auxiliary
Transformers

Overview of Steam Power Plants


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Turbo-set Arrangements

Paiton II Indonesia
2x 670 MW sub-critical
167 bar, 538C / 538C
(2422 psi, 1000F / 1000F)
Operation - 2000

Iskenderun Turkey
2x 660 MW sub-critical
177 bar, 538C / 538C
(2567 psi, 1000F / 1000F)
Operation - 2003

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Turbo-set Arrangements
Schwarze Pumpe Germany
2x 813 MW supercritical
260 bar, 547C / 565C
(3770 psi, 1016F / 1049F)
Operation - 1997/1998

Boxberg Germany
1x 908 MW supercritical
258,4 bar, 541C / 578C
(3748 psi, 1006F / 1072F)
Operation - 2000

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Turbo-set Arrangements

Isogo Japan
1x 600 MW ultra Supercritical
251 bar, 600C / 610C
3,640 psi , 1,112F / 1,130F
Two flow LP
Operation - 2002

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