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ribosomes and protein

synthesis

and the exact number depends on how active a particular cell is in synthesizing proteins.What Is the Function of Ribosomes? • Ribosomes are the sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place. Cells have many ribosomes. For example. rapidly growing cells usually have a large number of ribosomes  .

the two strands of the DNA double helix are made up of combinations of molecules called nucleotides. Thus. the paired strands unravel and each strand serves as the template for synthesis of a new complementary strand. and guanine (G) — each of which is named for the nitrogenous base it contains.• One factor that helps ensure precise replication is the double-helical structure of DNA itself. . DNA is constructed from just four different nucleotides —adenine (A). Moreover. cytosine (C). the nucleotides that form one strand of the DNA double helix always bond with the nucleotides in the other strand according to a pattern known as complementary basepairing — specifically. A always pairs with T. In particular. and C always pairs with G (Figure 2). thymine (T). during cell division.

and termination.Transcription • Transcription is the first step in decoding a cell's genetic information. namely stages of initiation. enzymes called RNA polymerases build RNA molecules that are complementary to a portion of one strand of the DNA double helix. Transcription includes three stages. . During transcription. elongation.

1) Initiation (Starters) • RNA polymerase binds to the promoter attached or (part of DNA). RNA polymerase open the DNA double chain. Set between the promoter and the RNA polymerase called transcription initiation complex. . Subsequently.

.2) Elongation • After opening the double chain strands of DNA. RNA grew elongated along with the formation of a nitrogen base pairs of DNA. RNA polymerase is then compiled strands of RNA nucleotides at the 5'to 3'direction. At this elongation stage.

Transcription elongation stage .

. Finally. the DNA chain fused back to normal and RNA polymerase immediately regardless of the DNA. RNA mRNA apart and forming new ones.3) Termination • Preparation of nucleotide RNA strands that had begun in the promoter region ends at the terminator region. Once transcription is complete.

The steps in the process of translation is as follows: .translation • Translation is the process of translating some triplets or codons of mRNA into amino acid-amino acid protein that eventually form.

1) The Translation of Initiation • Ribosomal small subunit binds to the mRNA that has brought the password for the amino acid to be made. large molecules bound ribosomes also shared the third molecule forming the initiation complex.. TRNA molecules bind and remove amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome by using GTP energy and enzymes . then. .

The Translation of Initiation .

Growing polypeptide chain is getting longer . Elongation of translation • Phase activation of amino acid codon-by-codon occurs so that the resulting amino acids one by one. Amino acids that have been activated by a tRNA previous work.2. linked by peptide bonds formed at the end of the tRNA carrier polypeptide amino acids through the process of elongation.

The elongation phase of translation .

UAG. . or UGA.termination • Translational process stops after the tRNA anticodon brought met with codons UAA. Thus. the polypeptide chain has been formed to be released from the ribosome and processed to form a functional protein.

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