DAs, IAs, and OAs
Pete Semig
Analog Applications EngineerPrecision Linear
1
Outline
• Definitions
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–
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Differentialinput amplifier
Commonmode voltage
Commonmode rejection ratio (CMRR)
Commonmode rejection (CMR)
• CMRR in Operational Amplifiers
• CMRR in Difference Amplifiers
• CMRR in Instrumentation Amplifiers
• CMRR in ‘Hybrid’ Amplifiers
2
Differential Input Amplifier
• Differential input amplifiers are devices/circuits that can input and
amplify differential signals while suppressing commonmode signals
– This includes operational amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers, and
difference amplifiers
Instrumentation
Amplifiers
Operational
Amplifier
Difference
Amplifier
3
CommonMode Voltage
• For a differential input amplifier, commonmode voltage is defined as the
average of the two input voltages. [2]
V p+V n
V cm=
2

Vn
+
+
+
+

Vo
Vp
4
CommonMode Voltage (Alternate defn. [2]  IOP1  Vid + + +  Vid/2 Vid/2 Vcm V p+V n V cm= 2 w here V id V p=V cm+ 2 V id V n=V cm2 Vout Vout Adm Vid Acm Vcm where Adm Differential .mode gain Acm Common .) • For a differential amplifier.mode gain 5 . commonmode voltage is defined as the average of the two input voltages.
826745V Va 1m 2 Vcm 0 4 V  Vid 0V 3 + + 6 + V+ Vb 0 Vcm 1 OP1 + 7 Vb 0 3 + 7 Vs. not a commonmode voltage.5   Vid 1000uV OP1 4 2  7 Vs+ 5 4 V  Vo 0V Va 0 Vcm 1 6 . V+ 2 V  Vid 0V 3 + V + 6 + V+ +  + Vb 0 Va 0 OP1 6 + V+ Vo 0V +  Vo 3.CommonMode Voltage • Ideally a differential input amplifier only responds to a differential input voltage.
CMRR and CMR • CommonMode Rejection Ratio is defined as the ratio of the differential gain to the commonmode gain Adm CMRR Acm • CMR is defined as follows [2]: CMR dB 20 log10 CMRR • CMR and CMRR are often used interchangeably 7 .
• Voltage Amplifier Model [1] Amplifier Source Load Ro Rs + Vs Vi  Ri VCVS + + +   Vi  Vo Rload A dm>Infinity • Also recall the differential gain of an ideal opamp is infinity. opamp)? • Recall that the ideal commonmode gain of a differential input amplifier is 0.g. • So CMRRideal OA Adm Adm Acm Acm 8 .Ideal Differential Amplifier CMRR • What is the CMRR of an ideal differential input amplifier (e.
• The openloop gain of an operational amplifier is fixed and determined by its design 9 .Real OpAmp CMRR • In an operational amplifier. the differential gain is known as the openloop gain.
Real OpAmp CMRR • However. there will be a commonmode gain due to the following – Asymmetry in the circuit • • • • • Mismatched source and drain resistors Signal source resistances Gatedrain capacitances Forward transconductances Gate leakage currents – Output impedance of the tail current source – Changes with frequency due to tail current source’s shunt capacitance • These issues will manifest themselves through converting commonmode variations to differential components at the output and variation of the output commonmode level. [4] 10 .
Resistor Mismatch • Let’s look at the case of a slight mismatch in drain resistances [4] in the input stage (diffin.cm changes? • Assuming M1 and M2 are identical. diffout) of an opamp • What happens to Vx and Vy as Vin. Vx and Vy will change by different amounts: • This imbalance will introduce a differential component at the output • So changes in the input commonmode can corrupt the output signal 11 .
Transistor Mismatch • What about mismatches with respect to M1 and M2? – Threshold mismatches – Dimension mismatches • These mismatches will cause the transistors to conduct slightly different currents and have unequal transconductances. • We find the conversion of input common mode variations to a differential error by the following factor [4] ACM DM g m RD g m1 g m 2 RSS 1 12 .
Tail Current Source Capacitance • As the frequency of the CM disturbance increases the capacitance shunting the tail current source will introduce larger current variations. [4] OPA333 13 .
Modeling CMRR • Now that we understand what CMRR is and what affects it in operational amplifiers. • First. we need to understand the model • To be useful. however. let’s see how it can affect a circuit. The magnitude (RTI) is Vcm/CMRR [2] Vcm/CMRR  Vn +  + + + Vo Vp 14 . CMRR needs to be referredtoinput (RTI) • We can therefore represent it as a voltage source (aka offset voltage) in series with an input.
VO AVp Vn OA CMRR Error Vcm CMRR Note that Vcm VO Vn VO • Example: noninverting buffer Vn Vcm/CMRR A + + + Vp Vo Vp VO A V p VO CMRR AV p VO AV p AVO CMRR 1 VO 1 A AV p 1 CMRR 1 A 1 VO CMRR Vp 1 A As A VO 1 1 Vp CMRR 15 .
• OPA376 PDS – Notice the Vcm is specified at the top of the page – Deviation from this value will induce an offset error – Remember CMRR is RTI 16 .Real CMRR Example • To understand the effects CMRR can have at the output of a device. let’s look at an example.
– For an operational amplifier.Real CMRR Example • Remember CMR (dB ) 20 log10 (CMRR) • In reality. in TI datasheets CMRR is defined as follows so that the value is positive Vcm CMRR Vos 17 . this is usually done with a composite amplifier • It is then referredtoinput by dividing by the gain and can be though of as an offset voltage • From reference [3]. CMRR is measured by changing the input commonmode voltage and observing the output change.
Real CMRR Example • For the OPA376.5 Vcm Vos For a 1V change in common mode 1V Vos 158.5 18 .5uV 6309. CMRR(min)=76dB. Note this is really CMR! CMR (dB ) 20 log10 (CMRR ) Vcm 76dB 20 log10 Vos 10 76 20 6309.
CMRR of Difference Amplifiers • A difference amplifier is made up of a differential amplifier (operational amplifier) and a resistor network as shown below. • The circuit meets our definition of a differential amplifier • The output is proportional to the difference between the input signals R1 R2 + Ri1 Ro  V1 + + Ri2 + R3 Vo R4 V2 19 .
DA CMRR • Let’s replace V1 and V2 with our alternate definition of the inputs (in terms of differentialmode and commonmode signals) Vdm 2 V V2 Vcm dm 2 R Vo 2 V2 V1 R1 V1 Vcm + Vdm/2 R1 R2 + +  Vcm + Vdm/2 R1 R2 Vo Vo R2 R1 Vo R2 Vdm R1 Vcm Vdm V Vcm dm 2 2 • It is readily observed that an ideal difference amplifier’s output should only amplify the differentialmode signal…not the commonmode signal. 20 .
let’s see what happens when an imbalance factor (ε) is introduced. + Vdm/2 R1 R2(1) + +  Vcm + Vdm/2 R1 Vo R2 21 . • Keeping the assumption that the operational amplifier is ideal.DA CMRR • This assumes that the operational amplifier is ideal and that the resistors are balanced.
DA CMRR • Using superposition we find that V Vo Vcm dm 2 V R2 1 Vcm dm R1 2 • After some algebra we find that [1] R2 R1 R2 1 R2 1 R1 R2 1 Vo AdmVdm AcmVcm where Adm R2 R 2 R2 1 1 R1 R1 R2 2 Acm R2 R1 R2 • As expected. 22 . Adm>R2/R1 and Acm>0. an imbalance affects the differential and commonmode gains. which will affect CMRR! • As the error>0.
let’s look at CMR Adm CMR(dB ) 20 log10 Acm R2 R 2 R 1 2 1 R1 R2 2 R1 20 log10 R2 R1 R2 • If the imbalance is sufficiently small we can neglect its effect on Adm • With that and some algebra we find [1] R2 R1 CMR(dB) 20 log10 1 23 .DA CMRR • Since we have equations for Acm and Adm.
DA CMRR • This equation shows two very important relationships R2 R1 1 CMR (dB) 20 log10 – As the gain of a difference amplifier increases (R2/R1). CMR decreases • Please remember that this just shows the effects of the resistor network and assumes an ideal amplifier 24 . CMR increases – As the mismatch (ε) increases.
• This will negatively affect CMR 25 .DA CMRR • Another possible source for CMRR degradation is the impedance at the reference pin. + Vdm/2 R1 R2 + +  Vcm + Vdm/2 R1 Vo R2 • Placing and impedance here will disturb the voltage divider we come across during superposition analysis. • So far we have connected this pin to lowimpedance ground.
Real DA CMRR Example (INA149 PDS) 26 .
09 10. right? T 319.00 1.00k • Should be wellmatched • Should have low temperature drift 27 .Why not make our own DA? • If a DA is simply an operational amplifier and 4 resistors.00k Frequency (Hz) 100.09 R2 25k 0% 0% Gain (dB) R1 25k  + + 319. I can save money by making my own.09 + R3 25k R4 25k 0% 0%  Vout Vcm 319.
1% tolerance for R2 this network can degrade CMRR to 66dB (calculated). 100 cases + + • Values are negative due to TINA T R2 25k 60. and R4 and only 0.00 120. R3.00k Frequency (Hz) 100.16dB (simulated). 28 .00 10.00 100.00 140.00 1.1%  • Gaussian distribution (6σ).00 + R3 25k R4 25k 0% 0%  Vout Vcm Gain (dB) 80. 69.Why not make our own DA? • Let’s assume an ideal amplifier and just look at resistor mismatches using TINA (only changing R2) R1 25k • Monte Carlo analysis 0% 0.00k Assuming 0% tolerance for R1.
00k Frequency (Hz) 100.01% Worse performance than all of our DAs  + + R1 150k R2 150k 0.1% + R4 150k  Vout 0.1%? R2 25k 0.00k 29 .00 1.35 125.01% 0.00k Frequency (Hz) 100.01%  Vout R3 150k + R1 25k 0.86 119.00 1.93 T 60.01% or 0.1% 0.1% Vcm T 81.84 Gain (dB) Vcm 93.1% + + R3 25k R4 25k 0.Why not make our own DA? • What if all resistors are 0.84 Gain (dB) 100.01% 0.74 10.00k 10.
00 1.00 10.00k 30 .00 T 60.00 80. 46.5%: 52dB (calc).34dB (sim) T 20.00 1.Why not make our own DA? 0.0%: 46dB (calc).00k Frequency (Hz) 100. 33.00k Frequency (Hz) 100.00k 5.00k 10.00 80.00 1.00 40.00 120.00 100. 53.00 10.85dB (sim) 40.00k Frequency (Hz) 100.00 100.00 Gain (dB) 80.00 60.00 40.64dB (sim) T 1.00 100.0%: 32dB (calc).00 Gain (dB) Gain (dB) 60.
10ppm/C resistor (1k pricing) – – – – 1206 package: 0805 package: 0603 package: 0402 package: $0. 25ppm/C resistor (1k pricing) – SO8 package: $0.00 total cost. 10k pricing!) • 60dB: Lowest cost 4pack 0.12 total cost) $0.1%.12 total cost) $0.98 ($0.98 total cost) • Footprint size comparison: 1 required (need op amp) 4 required 31 .45 ($1.50 ($2.Why not make our own DA? • 80dB: Lowest cost of one 0.53 ($2.01%.80 total cost) $0.53 ($2.
05! • Customer will require 2 suppliers (1 for OA.Why not make our own DA? • Now that we understand how the resistor matching can affect CMRR and the related cost.ti. what about an integrated solution? • TI can trim resistors to within 0.com: $1.20 Includes amplifier! • Some DA’s can give CMR(min)=74dB @ $1.01% relative accuracy • INA152 – – – – – – CMR(min)=80dB GE=10ppm/˚C (max) Onchip resistors will drift together MSOP8 1k price on www. 1 for precision resistors) Op amp included! 32 .
– To retain good CMR they would have to be tightly matched. you could use an external operational amplifier (with very low output impedance so as not to degrade CMR) to drive the reference pin as shown below [4] R2 RG v2 v1 vo R1 R3 33 . • What if we wanted variable gain? • We would have to adjust 2 resistors due to the topology. – This is difficult and expensive • Alternately. too.DA Gain • We learned that the gain of a difference amplifier is set by R2 and R1.
• If you need variable gain. difference amplifiers are typically manufactured with a set gain so as to preserve CMR and since there are alternate (better) solutions for variable gain • Since difference amplifiers come with a fixed gain. there are better options – Instrumentation amplifiers (IAs) usually have an external resistor that can be used to set the gain – Programmable Gain Amplifiers (PGAs) can be programmed (either with pin settings or digitally) with a particular gain • In summary. R3 should be a precision resistor.DA Gain • But. • You also need to purchase an external operational amplifier and potentiometer. you will only see 1 CMR curve in the datasheet 34 . Its error will be seen as a gain error.
retain high CMR. change the gain. and not load our source? • Yes! Buffer the inputs…this creates an Instrumentation Amplifier (IA). 35 .Difference AmplifiersSummary • Pros: – – – – Difference amplifiers amplify differential signals and reject commonmode signals The commonmode rejection is based mainly resistor matching Making your own difference amplifier will not yield the same performance Difference amplifiers can be used to protect against ground disturbances • Cons: – Externally changing the gain of a difference amplifier is not worthwhile – The input impedance is finite • This means that a difference amplifier will load the input signals • If the input signal source’s impedances are not balanced. CMR could be degraded • Is there a way we can amplify differential signals.
Instrumentation Amplifier • There are 2 common types of instrumentation amplifiers – 2 opamp (e.g.g. INA122) – 3 opamp (e. INA333) 36 .
Instrumentation Amplifier • Notice both have gain equations so you can vary the gain • Notice the input impedance is that of the noninverting terminal of a noninverting amplifier HighZ Nodes Difference Amp HighZ Nodes Variable Gain 37 .
we also change the CMRR. Since we can change the differential gain of an IA. what is the CMRR of an instrumentation amplifier? • Instrumentation amplifiers reject commonmode signals (Acm>0) • Recall Adm CMRR Acm • CMRR is directly related to differential gain. 38 .IA CMRR • So.
INA826 CMRR Model Verification V1 15 Rg Rg 1k Ref + Rg + + U1 INA826 T +  160 Vout G1000 140 G100 Vcm 120 G10 G1 +V 15 Gain (dB) 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 215 5k 100k Frequency (Hz) 39 .
100 cases.06869dB 81. T 74.97dB<CMR<108.065531dB<CMR<108.13 10. no postprocessing was performed – Normally this would be Gain/Waveform.19 1% Resistor 81. Therefore we have to mentally subtract 20dB from this cluster of waveforms. let’s look at the effects of Rg’s tolerance on CMRR • Set G=100.00k Frequency (Hz) 88. – Note that due to the number of cases.00 1.04dB<CMR<88.065531dB<CMR<88.06869dB Adjusted for gain: 108.19 88.00 1.13dB T 74.07dB Adjusted for gain: 108. 6σ resistors.00k 0.00 100.13 88.00k 1.13dB Adjusted for gain: 107.97dB<CMR<88.1% Resistor Gain (dB) Gain (dB) 5% Resistor 88.07dB 81.13 88.19 T 74.INA826Effects of Rg Tolerance on CMRR • Now that we see our INA826 model is accurate.07 10.00k Frequency (Hz) 100. 40 .08 10.16 Gain (dB) 87.04dB<CMR<108.00k Frequency (Hz) 100.00k Notice the gain setting resistor tolerance does not significantly affect the CMR.
2OA Instrumentation Amplifiers • What are the properties of 2OA Instrumentation Amplifiers? • Pros – Lower cost (only 2 opamps). less trimming – High impedance input – Can be placed in a smaller package • Cons – Compare signal path to Vo for Vin+ and Vin– Vin+ has a shorter path than V– This delay does not allow the commonmode components to cancel each other as well as frequency increases – Therefore CMR degradation occurs earlier in frequency than the 3OA designs Since we can change the differential gain. the CMR also changes. 41 .
• How do we determine whether CMRR will change with the ‘gain’ of this device? Opamp (has fixed differential gain) 2OA Instrumentation Amp 42 . INA321).‘Hybrid’ Difference Amplifiers • Some devices have unique topologies (e.g.
‘Hybrid’ Difference Amplifiers • Depends on what ‘gain’ you’re talking about. • With respect to CMRR. • When you place resistors for R1 and R2. it’s all about the differential gain since the commonmode gain of all differential amplifiers is ideally 0. are you changing the differential gain? 43 .
‘Hybrid’ Differential Amplifiers • No. the CMRR will not change with gain. The differential gain of the device is set internally! • If you can’t change the differential gain of the device. • Remember the differential gain of an opamp (A3) is fixed (it’s the openloop gain) 44 .
Real IA CMR Competitive Analysis 45 .
Summary • A ‘differential amplifier’ amplifies differential signals. and instrumentation amplifiers • CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential gain to commonmode gain • All differential amplifiers have an ideal commonmode gain of 0 • To determine if a circuit’s CMRR is going to change with gain. the CMRR will also change 46 . difference amplifiers. • If you can change the differential gain of the device/circuit. Remember an opamp’s differential gain is fixed. you must look at the differential gain. not commonmode signals – Examples include operational amplifiers.
McGrawHill. 47 . “Understanding Operational Amplifier Specifications”. 3rd Edition. • [4] Razavi. McGrawHill. “Operational Amplifiers: Design and Applications”. “Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits”. 2001. • [3] Karki. “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”. McGrawHill. Graeme. 1971. Texas Instruments. Huelsman. 2002. • [2] Tobey. 1998. White Paper: SLOA011.References • [1] Franco.
Questions? 48 .